The labour supply of Indigenous Australian females: the effects of fertility and interactions with the justice system
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Indigenous females are among the most disadvantaged groups in Australia; Furthermore outcomes for Indigenous Australians compare unfavourably with those for similar First Nations around the world. There appears to be a demographic transition under way in Indigenous Australia whereby declines in fertility and mortality are likely to lead to an increase in the number of Indigenous people supplying their labour in the near future. This paper examines the determinants of Indigenous female labour force participation with a particular focus on the role of fertility and interaction with the justice system. The analysis controls for the standard determinants of labour supply, but its main contribution is in taking into account the endogeneity of these potential interruptions to labour market participation. These findings are also important because Indigenous Australian females are 22 times more likely to be in prison than other Australian females and hence the analysis has crucial implications for the ability of policy makers to ‘close the gaps’ between Indigenous and other Australians. Once endogeneity of fertility with labour supply is taken into account, there is no significant independent effect on labour force participation and hence policy should focus on the other factors including education and training.
- Altman, J. C., Biddle, N., & Hunter, B. (2009). Prospects for ‘closing the gap’ in socioeconomic outcomes for Indigenous Australians? Australian Economic History Review, 49(3), 225–251. CrossRef
- Altman, J. C., Buchanan, G., & Biddle, N. (2006). The real ‘real’ economy in remote Australia. In B. Hunter (Ed.), Assessing the evidence on Indigenous socioeconomic outcomes: A focus on the 2002 NATSISS (pp. 139–152). Canberra: ANU E Press.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (1995). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey 1994: Detailed findings. Cat. no. 4190.0. Canberra.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2004). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social survey 2002. Cat. no. 4714.0. Canberra.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2010). Population characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006. Cat. no. 4713.0. Canberra.
- Biddle, N., & Hunter, B. H. (2006a). An analysis of the internal migration of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 9(4), 321–341.
- Biddle, N., & Hunter, B. H. (2006b). Factors associated with internal migration: A comparison between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Working Paper No. 32. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University.
- Borland, J., & Hunter, B. H. (2000). Does crime affect employment status? The case of Indigenous Australians. Economica, 67(1), 123–144. CrossRef
- Broadhurst, R. (1997). Aborigines and crime in Australia. Crime and Justice, 21, 407–468. CrossRef
- Commonwealth of Australia. (1991). Recommendations of the royal commission into aboriginal deaths in custody. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
- Dale, M. (1976). Barriers to rehabilitation of ex-offenders. Crime and Delinquency, 22, 322–337. CrossRef
- Daly, A. E. (1995). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Australian labour market. Cat. no. 6253.0. Canberra: ABS.
- Daly, A. E., & Hunter, B. H. (1999). Incentives to work: Replacement ratios and the cost of job loss among unemployed Indigenous Australians. Australian Economic Review, 32(3), 219–236. CrossRef
- Dodson, M., & Hunter, B. (2006a). Crime and justice issues. In B. H. Hunter (Ed.), Assessing recent evidence on Indigenous socioeconomic outcomes: A focus on the 2002 NATSISS. CAEPR Monograph No. 26. Canberra: ANU E-press.
- Dodson, M., & Hunter, B. (2006b). Selected crime and justice issues for Indigenous families. Family Matters, 75, 34–41.
- Farkas, G. (2003). Cognitive skills and non-cognitive traits and behaviors in stratification processes. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 541–562. CrossRef
- Finn, R. H., & Fontaine, P. (1985). The association between selected characteristics and perceived employability of offenders. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 12(3), 353–365. CrossRef
- Freeman, R. (1988). The relation of criminal activity to black youth employment. In M. Simms & S. Myers (Eds.), The economics of race and crime (pp. 99–107). Oxford: Transaction Books.
- Gray, M., & Chapman, B. (2006). Labour market issues. In B. H. Hunter (Ed.), Assessing recent evidence on Indigenous socioeconomic outcomes: A focus on the 2002 NATSISS. CAEPR Monograph No. 26. Canberra: ANU E-press.
- Heckman, J. J., Stixrud, J., & Urzua, S. (2006). The effects of cognitive and non-cognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behaviour. Journal of Labor Economics, 24, 411–482. CrossRef
- Hersch, J., & Stratton, L. (1994). Housework, wages and the division of household time for employed spouses. American Economic Review, 84(1), 120–125.
- Holzer, H. J., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. A. (2006). Perceived criminality, criminal background checks, and the racial hiring practices of employers. Journal of Law and Economics, 49, 451–480.
- Hunter, B. H. (2001). Factors underlying Indigenous arrests rates. Sydney: New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.
- Hunter, B. H. (2002). Institutional factors underpinning Indigenous labour force participation: The role of the CDEP scheme and education. Working Paper No. 14. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University.
- Hunter, B. H. (2004). Indigenous Australians in the contemporary labour market. Cat. No. 2052.0. Canberra: ABS.
- Hunter, B. H. (2007). The 2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey. Australian Economic Review, 40(3), 313–322. CrossRef
- Hunter, B. H., & Ayyar, A. (2011). Undercounts in offender data and closing the gap between Indigenous and other Australians. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 46(1), 69–89.
- Hunter, B. H., & Daly, A. E. (2008). Interactions between crime and fertility in the labour supply of Indigenous Australian women. Working Paper No. 40. Canberra: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Australian National University.
- Hunter, B. H., & Gray, M. C. (2001). Indigenous labour force status re-visited: Factors associated with the discouraged worker phenomenon. Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 4(2), 115–137.
- Johnstone, K., & Evans, A. (2012). Fertility and the demography of Indigenous Australians: What can the NATSISS 2008 tell us? In B. Hunter & N. Biddle (Eds.), Understanding Indigenous disadvantage: Social science perspectives on the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey. Canberra: ANU E-Press.
- Killingsworth, M. (1983). Labor supply. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
- Killingsworth, M. R., & Heckman, J. J. (1986). Chapter 2 Female labor supply: A survey. In: C. A. Orley, L. Richard (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics (pp. 103–204, Vol. 1). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
- Kinfu, Y. (2006). Aboriginal child mortality in Australia: Recent levels and covariates. In B. H. Hunter (Ed.), Assessing recent evidence on Indigenous socioeconomic outcomes: A focus on the 2002 NATSISS. CAEPR Monograph No. 26. Canberra: ANU E-press.
- Loh, N., & Ferrante, A. (2003). Aboriginal involvement in the Western Australian criminal justice system: A statistical review, 2001. Report for Department of Indigenous Affairs, Perth: Crime Research Centre, University of Western Australia.
- MacDonald, Z., & Shields, M. A. (2004). Does problem drinking affect employment? Evidence from England. Health Economics, 13(2), 139–155. CrossRef
- Ministry of Maori Development (2000). Progress towards closing social and economic gaps between Maori and non-Maori. Wellington.
- Office of Evaluation and Audit. (1997). Evaluation of the Community Development Employment Projects program: Final report. Canberra: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission.
- Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record. American Journal of Sociology, 108(5), 937–975. CrossRef
- Pencavel, J. (1986). Chapter 1. Labor supply of men: A survey. In: C. A. Orley., L. Richard (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics (pp. 3–102, Vol. 1). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
- Peterson, N., & Taylor, J. (2003). The modernising of the Indigenous domestic moral economy: Kinship, accumulation and household composition. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 4(1 & 2), 105–122. CrossRef
- Rivers, D., & Vuong, Q. (1988). Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models. Journal of Econometrics, 39, 347–366. CrossRef
- Schwartz, R., & Skolnick, J. (1962). Two studies of legal stigma. Social Problems, 10(Fall), 133–142. CrossRef
- Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (SCRGSP). (2009). Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: Key indicators 2009 Report. Melbourne: Productivity Commission.
- Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (SCRGSP). (2011). Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: Key indicators 2011 Report. Melbourne: Productivity Commission.
- Stephens, B. J. (2010). The determinants of labour force status among Indigenous Australians. Australian Journal of Labour Economics, 13(3), 287–312.
- Stoll, M. A., Holzer, H. J., & Ihlanfeldt, K. R. (2000). Within cities and suburbs: Racial residential concentration and the spatial distribution of employment opportunities across sub-metropolitan areas. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 19(2), 207–231. CrossRef
- Taylor, J. (2003). Indigenous Australians: The first transformation. In S.-E. Khoo & P. McDonald (Eds.), The transformation of Australia’s population, 1970–2030 (pp. 17–39). Sydney: UNSW Press.
- Taylor, J. (2010). Postcolonial transformation of the Australian Indigenous population. Geographical Research, 49(3), 286–300. CrossRef
- Terza, J. (2002). Alcohol abuse and employment: A second look. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 17, 393–404. CrossRef
- Vella, F. (1993). A simple estimator for models with censored endogenous regressors. International Economic Review, 34(2), 441–457. CrossRef
- The labour supply of Indigenous Australian females: the effects of fertility and interactions with the justice system
Journal of Population Research
Volume 30, Issue 1 , pp 1-18
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Indigenous females
- Labour supply