Rare Fungal Infections in Children: An Updated Review of the Literature
An increasing trend of reports of rare fungal diseases has been observed to be mainly associated with the substantial increase of high-risk immunocompromised children, as well as with the selective pressure of antifungal drugs. On the other hand, recent reports have shown that several species of these rare fungi may also cause infections in immunocompetent children without obvious underlying conditions. The clinical spectrum of these infections, and most importantly their outcome, varies greatly, implying for a rather heterogenic group of pediatric infections. Various types of superficial and subcutaneous fungal infections, as well as systemic and disseminated life-threatening infections, have been reported. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of rare fungal diseases in children remains a great challenge. Several treatment options have been used, ranging from localized to combination treatment with extensive surgical excision and long-term antifungal therapy. We review contemporary data of rare fungal infections in pediatric patients focusing on epidemiology, mycology, management and outcome, published during the last three years.