Nano Research

, Volume 9, Issue 12, pp 3663–3670

Observing the evolution of graphene layers at high current density

  • Chun-Wei Huang
  • Jui-Yuan Chen
  • Chung-Hua Chiu
  • Cheng-Lun Hsin
  • Tseung-Yuen Tseng
  • Wen-Wei Wu
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12274-016-1237-0

Cite this article as:
Huang, CW., Chen, JY., Chiu, CH. et al. Nano Res. (2016) 9: 3663. doi:10.1007/s12274-016-1237-0

Abstract

Graphene has demonstrated its potential in several practical applications owing to its remarkable electronic and physical properties. In this study, we successfully fabricated a suspended graphene device with a width down to 20 nm. The morphological evolution of graphene under various electric field effects was systematically examined using an in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The hourglass-shaped graphene sample instantly broke apart at 7.5 mA, indicating an impressive breakdown current density. The current-carrying capacity was calculated to be ~1.6 × 109 A·cm–2, which is several orders higher than that of copper. The current-carrying capacity depended on the resistivity of graphene. In addition, atomic volume changes occurred in the multilayer graphene samples due to surface diffusion and Ostwald ripening (OR), indicating that the breakdown mechanism is well approximated by the electric field. This study not only provides a theory to explain the breakdown behavior but also presents the effects on materials contacted with a graphene layer used as the transmission path.

Keywords

graphene breakdown high current density in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) Ostwald ripening 

Supplementary material

12274_2016_1237_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.7 mb)
Observing the evolution of graphene layers at high current density
12274_2016_1237_MOESM2_ESM.avi (7.3 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 7.34 MB.
12274_2016_1237_MOESM3_ESM.avi (4.5 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 4.52 MB.
12274_2016_1237_MOESM4_ESM.avi (4.8 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 4.81 MB.

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chun-Wei Huang
    • 1
  • Jui-Yuan Chen
    • 1
  • Chung-Hua Chiu
    • 1
  • Cheng-Lun Hsin
    • 2
  • Tseung-Yuen Tseng
    • 3
  • Wen-Wei Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringChiao Tung UniversityHsinchiuChina
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringCentral UniversityChung-Li City, TaoyuanChina
  3. 3.Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of ElectronicsChiao Tung UniversityHsinchiuChina