Nano Research

, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp 307–316

Electrocondensation and evaporation of attoliter water droplets: Direct visualization using atomic force microscopy

  • Narendra Kurra
  • Adina Scott
  • Giridhar U. Kulkarni
Open AccessResearch Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12274-010-1034-0

Cite this article as:
Kurra, N., Scott, A. & Kulkarni, G.U. Nano Res. (2010) 3: 307. doi:10.1007/s12274-010-1034-0


Working with a biased atomic force microscope (AFM) tip in the tapping mode under ambient atmosphere, attoliter (10−18 L) water droplet patterns have been generated on a patterned carbonaceous surface. This is essentially electrocondensation of water leading to charged droplets, as evidenced from electrostatic force microscopy measurements. The droplets are unusual in that they exhibit a highly corrugated surface and evaporate rather slowly, taking several tens of minutes.


Electrocondensationattoliter water dropletsbiased atomic force microscope (AFM) lithographyelectron beam induced depositioncarbonaceous deposition
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Supplementary material

12274_2010_1034_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narendra Kurra
    • 1
  • Adina Scott
    • 2
  • Giridhar U. Kulkarni
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit and DST Unit on NanoscienceJawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific ResearchBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Birck Nanotechnology CenterPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA