, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp 307-316,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 26 Mar 2010

Electrocondensation and evaporation of attoliter water droplets: Direct visualization using atomic force microscopy


Working with a biased atomic force microscope (AFM) tip in the tapping mode under ambient atmosphere, attoliter (10−18 L) water droplet patterns have been generated on a patterned carbonaceous surface. This is essentially electrocondensation of water leading to charged droplets, as evidenced from electrostatic force microscopy measurements. The droplets are unusual in that they exhibit a highly corrugated surface and evaporate rather slowly, taking several tens of minutes.