, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 165-176

Polydendrocytes in development and myelin repair

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Abstract

Polydendrocytes (NG2 cells) are a distinct type of glia that populate the developing and adult central nervous systems (CNS). In the adult CNS, they retain mitotic activity and represent the largest proliferating cell population. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms regulate the fate of polydendrocytes, which give rise to both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. In addition, polydendrocytes actively differentiate into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes in response to demyelination. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding polydendrocyte development, which provides an important basis for understanding the mechanisms that lead to the remyelination of demyelinated lesions.