District and School Physical Education Policies: Implications for Physical Education and Recess Time
The relationship between physical education (PE) policies and children’s PE and recess time is not well understood.
The purpose of this study is to assess the association of district and school PE policies, the PE environment, and PE and recess time.
Key informants in 65 schools from 9 states completed instruments assessing district and school PE policies, the school PE environment, and time in PE and recess.
Few significant associations were found between PE policies and PE or recess minutes; no policies were associated with both. A number of PE environmental variables were associated with both policies and time in PE and recess.
PE policies, their implementation, and PE environmental variables can have important implications for recess time. Some school PE environment measures designed to improve PE may result in PE time limitations. Deficiencies in PE and recess time are not likely to be effectively addressed through policy adoption alone.
- US Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.
- Strong W, Malina RM, Blimkie CJR, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005;146:732-737. CrossRef
- Troiano R, Berrigan D, Dodd K, et al. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:181-188.
- Anderson SE, Whitaker RC. Prevalence of obesity among US preschool children in different racial and ethnic groups. Arch Pediatr Adoles Med. 2009;163(4):344-348. CrossRef
- Daniels SR, Jacobson MS, McCrindle BW, et al. American Heart Association childhood obesity research summit: Executive summary. Circulation. 2009;119:2114-2123. CrossRef
- Han JC, Lawlor DA, Kimm SYS. Childhood obesity. Lancet. 2010;375(9727):1737-1748. CrossRef
- Ogden C, Carroll M, Curtin L, Lamb M, Flegal K. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA. 2010;303:242-249. CrossRef
- Brown T, Summerbell C. Systematic review of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to prevent childhood obesity: An update to the obesity guidance produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Obes Rev. 2009;10(1):110-141. CrossRef
- McCall A, Raj R. Exercise for prevention of obesity and diabetes in children and adolescents. Clin Sports Med. 2009;28(3):393-421. CrossRef
- National Association of State Boards of Education. Fit, healthy, and ready to learn: A school health policy guide; 2000. Available at http://www.nasbe.org/index.php/shs/53-shs-resources/396-fit-healthy-and-ready-to-learn-a-school-healthpolicy-%20guide. Accessed February 15, 2011.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Rockville: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services; 2001.
- US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020. Washington: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2010. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/pdfs/HP2020objectives.pdf. Accessed March 18, 2012.
- McLeroy KR, Bibeau D, Steckler A, Glanz K. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Educ Behav. 1998;15(4):351-377. CrossRef
- Sallis JF, Cervero RB, Ascher W, Henderson KA, Kraft MK, Kerr J. An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annu Rev Public Health. 2006;27:297-322. CrossRef
- Brownson RC, Baker EA, Housemann RA, Brennan LK, Bacak SJ. Environmental and policy determinants of physical activity in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(12):1995-2003. CrossRef
- Sallis JF, Bauman A, Pratt M. Environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 1998;15(4):379-397. CrossRef
- Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Conway TL, et al. Environmental interventions for eating and physical activity: A randomized controlled trial in middle schools. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24(3):209-217. CrossRef
- Partnership for Prevention. School-Based Physical Education: Working with Schools to Increase Physical Activity Among Children and Adolescents in Physical Education Classes—An Action Guide. The Community Health Promotion Handbook: Action Guides to Improve Community Health. Washington: Partnership for Prevention; 2008.
- Pate RR, Davis MG, Robinson TN, et al. Promoting physical activity in children and youth: A leadership role for schools. Circulation. 2006;114:1214-1224. CrossRef
- Payne VG, Morrow JR. School physical education as a viable change agent to increase youth physical activity. Res Digest. 2009;10(2):1-8.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity. MMWR. 2011;60(RR05):1-71.
- Story M, Nanney MS, Schwartz MB. Schools and obesity prevention: Creating school environments and policies to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Milbank Q. 2009;87(1):71-100. CrossRef
- Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Local school wellness policies: How are schools implementing the congressional mandate? RWJF Policy Brief; 2009. Available at http://www.activelivingresearch.org/files/ALR_Brief_LocalWellnessPolicies.pdf. Accessed March 19, 2012.
- Public Law 108-265. 108th Congress, June 30, 2004. Available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/governance/legislation/historical/pl_108-265.pdf. Accessed July 7, 2012.
- McKenzie TL, Lounsbery MAF. School physical education: The pill not taken. J Lifestyle Med. 2009;3:219-225. CrossRef
- McMurrer J. Instructional time in elementary schools: A closer look at changes for specific subjects. A report in the series from the capital to the classroom: Year 5 of the No Child Left Behind Act. Center on Educational Policy; 2008. Available at http://www.cep-dc.org/. Accessed March 19, 2012.
- Lee SM, Burgeson CR, Fulton JE, Spain CG. Physical education and physical activity: Results from the school health policies and programs study 2006. J Sch Health. 2007;77(8):435-463. CrossRef
- U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics, 2007 (NCES 2008-022), Chapter 1; 2008. Available at http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=65. Accessed March 19, 2012.
- Slater SJ, Nicholson L, Chriqui J, Turner L, Chaloupka F. The impact of state laws and district policies on physical education and recess practices in a nationally representative sample of US public elementary schools. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(4):311-316. CrossRef
- Skala KA, Springer A, Sharma S, Hoelscher DM, Kelder SH. Environmental characteristics and student physical activity in PE Class: Findings from two large urban areas of Texas. J Physical Activity Health. 2012;9(4):481-491.
- Barroso C, Kelder SH, Springer AE, et al. Texas Senate Bill 42: Implementation and impact on physical activity in middle schools. J Adoles Health. 2009;45(3 Suppl 1):S82-S90. CrossRef
- Kelder SH, Springer AE, Barroso C, et al. The Impact of Texas Senate Bill 19 on elementary school children’s level of physical activity. J Public Health Policy. 2009;30(Suppl 1):S221-S247. CrossRef
- Heinrich KM, Johnson CB, Jokura Y, Nett B, Maddock JE. A survey of policies and local ordinances supporting physical activity in Hawaii counties. Prev Chronic Disease. 2008;5(1),1-7. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2248783/pdf/PCD51A19.pdf. Accessed March 19, 2012.
- O’Malley PM, Johnston LD, Delva J, Terry-McElrath YM. School physical activity environment related to student obesity and activity: A national study of schools and students. J Adoles Health. 2009;45:S71-S81. CrossRef
- Fernandes M, Sturm R. Facility provision in elementary schools: correlates with physical education, recess, and obesity. Prev Med. 2010;50(Suppl 1):S30-S35. CrossRef
- Lounsbery MAF, McKenzie TL, Morrow JR, Holt KA, Budnar RG. School Physical Activity Policy Assessment (S-PAPA): Test–retest reliabilities. J Phys. Act Health. 2012, in press.
- McKenzie TL, Strikmiller PK, Stone EJ, et al. CATCH: Physical activity process evaluation in a multicenter trial. Health Educ Q. 1994;1994(Suppl 2):S73-S89.
- Lounsbery MAF, McKenzie TL, Trost SG, Smith NJ. Facilitators and barriers to adopting evidence-based physical education in elementary schools. J Physical Activity Health. 2011;8(Suppl 1):S17-S25.
- McKenzie TL, Marshall SJ, Sallis JF, Conway TL. Student activity levels, lesson context, and teacher behavior during middle school physical education. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2000;71:249-259.
- Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, et al. The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:1328-1334. CrossRef
- District and School Physical Education Policies: Implications for Physical Education and Recess Time
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 45, Issue 1 Supplement, pp 131-141
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Physical education
- School physical activity
- Physical education policy
- Physical activity policy
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA
- 2. San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA
- 3. University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA