Privileges of First-Person Reference and of Third-Person Reference
- Guido Melchior
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
It is a widely held view that persons have privileged knowledge about their own minds, although numerous different views on what this privilege exactly consists of exist. One possible way of interpreting it is to claim that persons can refer to their own mental states in a privileged way. I will argue that this view has to be extended. Our common-sense view about reference to mental states implies that besides privileges of first-person reference to one's own mental states, there also exist privileges of third-person reference to the mental states of others: Other persons can refer to all of the mental states of a person in a way that the person cannot. In a next step, I will explain that persons can take two perspectives towards their own mental states: a first-person perspective and a third-person perspective. I will conclude that the possibilities of first-person reference from a third-person perspective are limited.
- Armstrong, DM (1968) A materialist theory of the mind. Routledge, London
- Armstrong, DM Consciousness and causality. In: Armstrong, DM, Malcolm, N eds. (1984) Consciousness and causality: A debate on the nature of mind. Blackwell, Oxford
- Bilgrami, A (2006) SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND RESENTMENT. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
- Brentano, F. (1874). Psychology from an empirical standpoint. In O. Kraus (Ed.). English edition: L. L. McAlister (1973). A. C. Rancurello, D. B. Terrell & L. L. McAlister (trans.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
- Carruthers, P (2000) Phenomenal consciousness: A naturalistic theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge CrossRef
- Carruthers, P (2005) Consciousness: Essays from a higher-order perspective. Oxford University Press, Oxford
- Carruthers, P. (2009). Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2009/entries/consciousness-higher.
- Gertler, B. (2008). Self-Knowledge. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (Ed.). http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/self-knowledge.
- Lycan, W (1996) Consciousness and experience. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
- Rosenthal, D (1986) Two concepts of consciousness. Philosophical Studies 49: pp. 329-359 CrossRef
- Rosenthal, D (2005) Consciousness and mind. Oxford University Press, Oxford
- Wright, C (1998) Knowing our own minds. Oxford University Press, Oxford
- Privileges of First-Person Reference and of Third-Person Reference
Volume 26, Issue 1 , pp 37-52
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Guido Melchior (1) (2)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. University of Graz, Graz, Austria
- 2. Institut für Philosophie, University of Graz, Heinrichstraße 26/6, 8010, Graz, Austria