, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 5-11,
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Ca2+/H+ exchange, lumenal Ca2+ release and Ca2+/ATP coupling ratios in the sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase

Abstract

The Ca2+ transport ATPase (SERCA) of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays an important role in muscle cytosolic signaling, as it stores Ca2+ in intracellular membrane bound compartments, thereby lowering cytosolic Ca2+ to induce relaxation. The stored Ca2+ is in turn released upon membrane excitation to trigger muscle contraction. SERCA is activated by high affinity binding of cytosolic Ca2+, whereupon ATP is utilized by formation of a phosphoenzyme intermediate, which undergoes protein conformational transitions yielding reduced affinity and vectorial translocation of bound Ca2+. We review here biochemical and biophysical evidence demonstrating that release of bound Ca2+ into the lumen of SR requires Ca2+/H+ exchange at the low affinity Ca2+ sites. Rise of lumenal Ca2+ above its dissociation constant from low affinity sites, or reduction of the H+ concentration by high pH, prevent Ca2+/H+ exchange. Under these conditions Ca2+ release into the lumen of SR is bypassed, and hydrolytic cleavage of phosphoenzyme may yield uncoupled ATPase cycles. We clarify how such Ca2+pump slippage does not occur within the time length of muscle twitches, but under special conditions and in special cells may contribute to thermogenesis.