Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 564–570

Basic Biology and Mechanisms of Neural Ciliogenesis and the B9 Family


DOI: 10.1007/s12035-012-8276-7

Cite this article as:
Gate, D., Danielpour, M., Levy, R. et al. Mol Neurobiol (2012) 45: 564. doi:10.1007/s12035-012-8276-7


Although the discovery of cilia is one of the earliest in cell biology, the past two decades have witnessed an explosion of new insight into these enigmatic organelles. While long believed to be vestigial, cilia have recently moved into the spotlight as key players in multiple cellular processes, including brain development and homeostasis. This review focuses on the rapidly expanding basic biology of neural cilia, with special emphasis on the newly emerging B9 family of proteins. In particular, recent findings have identified a critical role for the B9 complex in a network of protein interactions that take place at the ciliary transition zone (TZ). We describe the essential role of these protein complexes in signaling cascades that require primary (nonmotile) cilia, including the sonic hedgehog pathway. Loss or dysfunction of ciliary trafficking and TZ function are linked to a number of neurologic diseases, which we propose to classify as neural ciliopathies. When taken together, the studies reviewed herein point to critical roles played by neural cilia, both in normal physiology and in disease.


Primary ciliaNeural ciliogenesisNeural ciliopathyB9-C2 familyCiliary signalingStem cellProgenitor

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences and Regenerative Medicine InstituteCedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurosurgery and Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical InstituteCedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Regenerative Medicine InstituteCedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA