Article

Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 145-153

Hydroxychloroquine: From Malaria to Autoimmunity

  • Ilan Ben-ZviAffiliated withRheumatology Unit, Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine F, Sheba Medical Center
  • , Shaye KivityAffiliated withRheumatology Unit, Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine A and C, Sheba Medical Center
  • , Pnina LangevitzAffiliated withRheumatology Unit, Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center
  • , Yehuda ShoenfeldAffiliated withZabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine B, Sheba Medical Center Email author 

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Abstract

Quinine was first recognized as a potent antimalarial agent hundreds of years ago. Since then, the beneficial effects of quinine and its more advanced synthetic forms, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, have been increasingly recognized in a myriad of other diseases in addition to malaria. In recent years, antimalarials were shown to have various immunomodulatory effects, and currently have an established role in the management of rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, skin diseases, and in the treatment of chronic Q fever. Lately, additional metabolic, cardiovascular, antithrombotic, and antineoplastic effects of antimalarials were shown. In this review, we discuss the known various immunomodulatory mechanisms of antimalarials and the current evidence for their beneficial effects in various diseases and in potential novel applications.

Keywords

Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Antimalarial Novel Therapy Lupus