Viruses and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Type 1 Diabetes
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- Coppieters, K.T. & von Herrath, M.G. Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol (2011) 41: 169. doi:10.1007/s12016-010-8220-4
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Histopathological studies on pancreas tissues from individuals with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) consistently find that CD8 T cells substantially contribute to the formation of islet lesions. CD8 T cells reactive against islet-associated antigens can also be found in blood samples from T1D patients. Mechanistic studies on the pathogenic role of this T cell subset have mostly focused on two animal models, i.e., the non-obese diabetic mouse and the virally induced rat insulin promoter–lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model. Data were obtained in support of a role for viral infection in expanding a population of diabetogenic cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In view of the theorized association of viral infection with initiation of islet autoimmunity and progression to clinically overt disease, CD8 T cells thus represent an attractive target for immunotherapy. We will review here arguments in favor of a pivotal role for CD8 T cells in driving T1D development and speculate on etiologic agents that may provoke their aberrant activation.