Disparate Response to Methotrexate in Stem Versus Non-Stem Cells
Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent that kills cancer cells by binding dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) as a competitive inhibitor. Due to its non-selectivity, MTX also impairs normal (non-cancerous) cell function and causes long-term damage to healthy tissue. These consequences have been investigated extensively in bone-derived cells due to their sensitivity to the drug. While DHFR likely plays a role in normal cell response to MTX, research in this area is limited. Moreover, how MTX sensitivity differs among cell types responsible for maintaining connective tissues is unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of DHFR and subsequent nucleotide synthesis in normal cell response to MTX. We also sought to compare adverse effects of MTX among normal cell types to identify sensitive populations and resistant cell sources for regenerative procedures targeting patients undergoing chemotherapy. DHFR overexpression or exogenous amino acid + nucleoside delivery rescued normal cells from adverse MTX effects. Conversely, DHFR knockdown impaired MTX-treated adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) osteogenesis. Proliferation of ASCs and bone marrow stem cells was more resistant to MTX than that of terminally differentiated osteoblasts. However, stem cells became susceptible to the drug after beginning differentiation. These results suggest that the ability of stem cells to survive and to maintain their surrounding tissues likely depends on whether they are in a “stem” state when exposed to MTX. Therapeutic strategies that delay the differentiation of stem cells until clearance of the drug may produce more favorable outcomes in the long-term health of treated tissues.