The emergence of ECM mechanics and cytoskeletal tension as important regulators of cell function
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- Peyton, S.R., Ghajar, C.M., Khatiwala, C.B. et al. Cell Biochem Biophys (2007) 47: 300. doi:10.1007/s12013-007-0004-y
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The ability to harvest and maintain viable cells from mammalian tissues represented a critical advance in biomedical research, enabling individual cells to be cultured and studied in molecular detail. However, in these traditional cultures, cells are grown on rigid glass or polystyrene substrates, the mechanical properties of which often do not match those of the in vivo tissue from which the cells were originally derived. This mechanical mismatch likely contributes to abrupt changes in cellular phenotype. In fact, it has been proposed that mechanical changes in the cellular microenvironment may alone be responsible for driving specific cellular behaviors. Recent multidisciplinary efforts from basic scientists and engineers have begun to address this hypothesis more explicitly by probing the effects of ECM mechanics on cell and tissue function. Understanding the consequences of such mechanical changes is physiologically relevant in the context of a number of tissues in which altered mechanics may either correlate with or play an important role in the onset of pathology. Examples include changes in the compliance of blood vessels associated with atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia, as well as changes in the mechanical properties of developing tumors. Compelling evidence from 2-D in vitro model systems has shown that substrate mechanical properties induce changes in cell shape, migration, proliferation, and differentiation, but it remains to be seen whether or not these same effects translate to 3-D systems or in vivo. Furthermore, the molecular “mechanotransduction” mechanisms by which cells respond to changes in ECM mechanics remain unclear. Here, we provide some historical context for this emerging area of research, and discuss recent evidence that regulation of cytoskeletal tension by changes in ECM mechanics (either directly or indirectly) may provide a critical switch that controls cell function.