Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria That Use Furans as the Sole Carbon Source
Five bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater treatment facilities which were able to use furfural as the sole carbon source. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, these strains were identified as Cupriavidus pinatubonensis (designated ALS1280), Pigmentiphaga sp. (ALS1172), Pseudomonas sp. BWDY (ALS1279), Pseudomonas mendocina (ALS1131), and Pseudomonas putida (ALS1267). In all cases, growth under oxygenated conditions on furfural was accompanied by the transient accumulation of 2-furoic acid (furoate) with no furfuryl alcohol observed. ALS1267 and ALS1279 were also able to metabolize 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. The five isolates and their phylogenetic near neighbors were compared for furfural dehydrogenase activity and tolerance to furfural and furoate in defined and complex media. P. putida ALS1267 was the most tolerant to furans and tolerated 17 mM furfural or 195 mM furoate before its growth rate was reduced by 50 % in a defined medium. This strain also had the greatest specific growth rate on furfural (0.6/h at 27–30 °C) and showed the highest specific activity of furfural dehydrogenase (170 mIU/mg) of any furfural-utilizing strain that has been characterized to date.