A Central Role for Hypoxic Signaling in Cartilage, Bone, and Hematopoiesis
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- Rankin, E.B., Giaccia, A.J. & Schipani, E. Curr Osteoporos Rep (2011) 9: 46. doi:10.1007/s11914-011-0047-2
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Hypoxic signaling plays an essential role in maintaining oxygen homeostasis and cell survival. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 are central mediators of the cellular response to hypoxia by regulating the expression of genes controlling metabolic adaptation, oxygen delivery, and survival in response to oxygen deprivation. Recent studies have identified an important role for HIF-1 and HIF-2 in the regulation of skeletal development, bone formation, and regeneration, as well as joint formation and homeostasis. In addition, overexpression of HIF-1 and HIF-2 is clinically associated with osteosarcoma and osteoarthritis. Together, these findings implicate hypoxic signaling as a central regulator of bone biology and disease.