Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 379-384

First online:

Gastrointestinal Features of Parkinson’s Disease

  • Leslie J. CloudAffiliated withEmory University Email author 
  • , James G. GreeneAffiliated with505H Whitehead Biomedical Research Building, Emory University

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are among the most common nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD), and they have many important ramifications for patients. The purpose of this review is to raise awareness of the full spectrum of GI symptoms in PD which include weight loss, sialorrhea, dysphagia, nausea, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. We will discuss their practical significance, and outline a clear approach to their evaluation and management. A brief discussion about the impacts of commonly used medical and surgical PD therapies on GI symptom manifestation is also included.


Gastrointestinal Nonmotor symptoms Parkinson’s disease Weight loss Sialorrhea Dysphagia Aspiration Gastroparesis Nausea Vomiting Bloating Reflux Early satiety Constipation Defecatory dysfunction Laxatives Glycopyrrolate Atropine Ipratropium bromide Botulinum toxin Polyethylene glycol Psyllium Domperidone Apomorphine