2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, US Department of Health and Humans Services. www.health.gov/paguidelines
. Washington, DC.
The health consequences of smoking: a report of the surgeon general. Atlanta GA. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. 2004.
Eckel RH. obesity and heart disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1997;96:3248–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stone NJ, Robinson J, Lichtenstein AH, Merz CNB, Blum CB, Eckel RH, Goldberg AC, Gordon D, Levy D, Lloyd-Jones DM, McBride P, Schwartz JS, Shero ST, Smith SC, Watson K, Wilson PWF. 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. New guidelines advocating expanded use of statins as well as lifestyle measures to help control cholesterol.
James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, etal. Evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311:507–20. Recent consensus statement on blood pressure control establishing slightly different guidelines than JNC 7.
Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, etal. Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:412–9.
Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. N Engl J Med. 2000;343:16–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford ES, Ajani UA, Croft JB, Critchley JA, Labarthe DR, Kottke TE, etal. Explaining the decrease in U.S. deaths from coronary disease, 1980–2000. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2388–98.
Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Blaha MJ, etal. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;129:e28–292.
Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van Horn L, etal. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: the American Heart Association’s strategic Impact Goal through 2020 and beyond. Circulation. 2010;121:586–613.
Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, Hubbard VS, de Jesus JM, Lee I-M, Lichtenstein AH, Loria CM, Millen BE, Miller NH, Nonas CA, Sacks FM, Smith SC, Svetkey LP, Wadden TW, Yanovski SZ. 2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2013.
Franklin BA, Cushman M. Recent advances in preventive cardiology and lifestyle medicine: a themed series. Circulation. 2011;123:2274–83. The first in a series of articles on preventive cardiology and lifestyle medicine.
Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, US Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Washington, 2010.
American College of Lifestyle Medicine. http://www.lifestylemedicine.org/
accessed June 2, 2014.
Rippe JM. Lifestyle medicine. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strasser T. Reflections on cardiovascular disease. Interdiscip Sci Rev. 1978;3:225–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. JAMA. 2012;307:491–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Bethesda; 1998.
Eckel RH, Krauss RM. American Heart Association call to action: obesity as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. AHA Nutrition Committee. Circulation. 1998;97:2099–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Despres JP. Abdominal obesity as important component of insulin-resistance syndrome. Nutrition. 1993;9:452–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988;37/12:1595–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pascot A, Despres JP, Lemieux I, Almeras N, Bergeron J, Nadeau A, etal. Deterioration of the metabolic risk profile in women. Respective contributions of impaired glucose tolerance and visceral fat accumulation. Diabetes Care. 2001;24/5:902–8.
Pascot A, Despres JP, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, Nadeau A, Prud’homme D, etal. Contribution of visceral obesity to the deterioration of the metabolic risk profile in men with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetologia. 2000;43/9:1126–35.
Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, Loria CM, Ard JD, Millen BE, Comuzzie AG, Nonas CA, Donato KA, Pi-Sunyer FX, Hu FB, Stevens J, Hubbard VS, Stevens VJ, Jakicic JM, Wadden TA, Kushner RF, Wolfe BM, Yanovski SZ. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Obesity Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;.
Jensen MD, Ryan DH. New obesity guidelines: promise and potential. JAMA. 2014;311:23–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tanasescu M, Leitzmann MF, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men. JAMA. 2002;288(16):1994–2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, Rostron B, Thun M, Anderson RN, etal. 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:341–50.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 1997–2012, Sample Adult Core component. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/earlyrelease/earlyrelease201306_08.pdf
. Accessed on June 2, 2014).
Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van Horn L. Components of a cardioprotective diet: New insights. Circulation. 2011;123:2870–91. Comprehensive evidence-based article on nutrition and cardiovascular health.
Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas M-I, Corella D, Arós F, etal. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1279–90.
Montori VM, Brito JP, Ting HH. Patient-centered and practical application of new high cholesterol guidelines to prevent cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2014;311:465–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
D’Agostino Sr RB, Ansell BJ, Mora S, Krumholz HM. Clinical decisions. The guidelines battle on starting statins. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1652–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronas U, Leon A. Clinical strategies for managing dyslipidemias. In Lifestyle medicine, 2nd Edition. Rippe JM (ed), CRC Press (Boca Raton), 2013.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo Jr JL, et al. Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:S42–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steptoe A, Kivimaki M. Stress and cardiovascular disease: an update on current knowledge. Annu Rev Public Health. 2013;34:337–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mittleman MA, Mostofsky E. Physical, psychological and chemical triggers of acute cardiovascular events: preventive strategies. Circulation. 2011;124:346–54.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuart-Shor EM, Berra KA, Kamau MW, Kumanyika SK. Behavioral strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction in diverse and underserved racial/ethnic groups. Circulation. 2012;125:171–84.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ockene JK, Schneider KL, Lemon SC, Ockene IS. Can we improve adherence to preventive therapies for cardiovascular health? Circulation. 2011;124:1276–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman 3rd WP, Freedman DS, Voors AW, Gard PD, Srinivasan SR, Cresanta JL, et al. Relation of serum lipoprotein levels and systolic blood pressure to early atherosclerosis. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Eng J Med. 1986;314:138–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGill Jr HC, McMahan CA, Malcom GT, Oalmann MC, Strong JP. Effects of serum lipoproteins and smoking on atherosclerosis in young men and women. The PDAY Research Group Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:95–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daniels SR, Pratt CA, Hayman LL. Reduction of risk for cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents. Circulation. 2011;124:1673–86. Comprehensive article on risk factor reduction in children and adolescents.