Delayed Anaphylaxis to Red Meat in Patients with IgE Specific for Galactose alpha-1,3-Galactose (alpha-gal)
ANAPHYLAXIS AND DRUG ALLERGY (P LIEBERMAN AND S SPECTOR, SECTION EDITORS)
First Online: 09 October 2012 DOI:
10.1007/s11882-012-0315-y Cite this article as: Commins, S.P. & Platts-Mills, T.A.E. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep (2013) 13: 72. doi:10.1007/s11882-012-0315-y Abstract
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal. In instances where the triggering allergen is not known, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term risk management. Our recent work has identified a novel IgE antibody (Ab) response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab, and (2) delayed onset anaphylaxis 3–6 h after ingestion of mammalian food products (e.g., beef and pork). The results of our studies strongly suggest that tick bites are a cause, if not the only significant cause, of IgE Ab responses to alpha-gal in the southern, eastern and central United States. Patients with IgE Ab to alpha-gal continue to emerge and, increasingly, these cases involve children. This IgE Ab response cross-reacts with cat and dog but does not appear to pose a risk for asthma; however, it may impair diagnostic testing in some situations.
Keywords Anaphylaxis Delayed anaphylaxis Alpha-gal Galactose Food allergy IgE Mammalian meat Tick bites Asthma Red meat Abbreviations alpha-gal
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