Article

Current Allergy and Asthma Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 45-51

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Wojciech BargAffiliated withDepartment of Physiology, Medical University of Wroclaw
  • , Wojciech MedralaAffiliated withDepartment of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics, and Allergology, Medical University of Wroclaw
  • , Anna Wolanczyk-MedralaAffiliated withDepartment of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics, and Allergology, Medical University of WroclawDepartment of Clinical Research, Medical School of Legnica Email author 

Abstract

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) and food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) are rare but potentially life-threatening clinical syndromes in which association with exercise is crucial. The range of triggering physical activities is broad, including as mild an effort as a stroll. EIA is not fully repeatable (ie, the same exercise may not always result in anaphylaxis in a given patient). In FDEIA, the combined ingestion of sensitizing food and exercise is necessary to precipitate symptoms. Clinical features and management do not differ significantly from other types of anaphylaxis. The pathophysiology of EIA and FDEIA is not fully understood. Different hypotheses concerning the possible influence of exercise on the development of anaphylactic symptoms are taken into consideration. These include increased gastrointestinal permeability, blood flow redistribution, and most likely increased osmolality. This article also describes current diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities, including changes in lifestyle and preventive properties of antiallergic drugs as well as acute treatment of these dangerous syndromes.

Keywords

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis Food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis Basophil Mast cell Allergy Food allergy Histamine