Israel Journal of Mathematics

, Volume 202, Issue 1, pp 195-225

First online:

Noetherian type in topological products

  • Menachem KojmanAffiliated withDepartment of Mathematics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Email author 
  • , David MilovichAffiliated withDepartment of Engineering, Mathematics and Physics, Texas A&M International University
  • , Santi SpadaroAffiliated withDepartment of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, York University

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The cardinal invariant Noetherian type Nt(X) of a topological space X was introduced by Peregudov in 1997 to deal with base properties that were studied by the Russian School as early as 1976. We study its behavior in products and box-products of topological spaces.

We prove in Section 2:
  1. (1)

    There are spaces X and Y such that Nt(X×Y)< min{Nt(X), Nt(Y)}.

  2. (2)

    In several classes of compact spaces, the Noetherian type is preserved by the operations of forming a square and of passing to a dense subspace.


The Noetherian type of the Cantor Cube of weight \({\aleph _\omega }\) with the countable box topology, \({({2^{{\aleph _\omega }}})_\delta }\), is shown in Section 3 to be closely related to the combinatorics of covering collections of countable subsets of \({\aleph _\omega }\). We discuss the influence of principles like \({\square _{{\aleph _\omega }}}\) and Chang’s conjecture for \({\aleph _\omega }\) on this number and prove that it is not decidable in ZFC (relative to the consistency of ZFC with large cardinal axioms).

Within PCF theory we establish the existence of an (ℵ4, ℵ1)-sparse covering family of countable subsets of \({\aleph _\omega }\) (Theorem 3.20). From this follows an absolute upper bound of ℵ4 on the Noetherian type of \({({2^{{\aleph _\omega }}})_\delta }\). The proof uses a method that was introduced by Shelah in 1993 [33].