Research Paper

Small-scale Forestry

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 285-300

First online:

Smallholder Agroforestry in Rwanda: A SWOT-AHP Analysis

  • G. Andrew StainbackAffiliated withDepartment of Forestry, University of Kentucky Email author 
  • , Michel MasozeraAffiliated withWildlife Conservation Society, Rwanda Program
  • , Athanase MukuralindaAffiliated withWorld Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
  • , Puneet DwivediAffiliated withSchool of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


The perception of Rwandan government officials, NGOs, and extension specialists about smallholder agroforestry adoption as a strategy for smallholder farmers in Rwanda was investigated using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis framework combined with the analytical hierarchy process. Results indicate that smallholder agroforestry is viewed positively as a suitable strategy for Rwandan smallholder farmers. The most important positive features were the potential for increased agricultural output from agroforestry and a favorable policy environment in Rwanda supporting sustainable agriculture. Results also indicate that there needs to be better coordination of various efforts to promote agroforestry and stronger extension services for smallholder farmers. Carbon offset markets and other environmental service markets were seen as a potential opportunity for smallholder agroforestry. However, the results also indicate that there is substantial uncertainty and skepticism concerning how such markets would benefit smallholder farmers who adopted agroforestry.


Agroforestry Smallholder farmers Rwanda SWOT-AHP