Original Clinical Article

Journal of Children's Orthopaedics

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 479-483

First online:

Comparing caudal and intravenous ketamine for supplementation of analgesia after Salter innominate osteotomy

  • Hamid Reza AmiriAffiliated withDepartment of Anesthesiology, Imam University Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
  • , Ramin EspandarAffiliated withDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Imam University Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Email author 
  • , Mehdi SanatkarAffiliated withAutoimmune Bullous Disease Research Center, Razi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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Previous studies claim that caudal administration of ketamine causes effective analgesia. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of ketamine after caudal or intravascular administration in pediatric patients that underwent orthopedic surgery to distinguish between local and systemic analgesia.


After the induction of general anesthesia, 36 patients, aged 18 months to 10 years, assigned to undergo orthopedic surgery, received a caudal injection of bupivacaine and were randomly blinded into two groups: one group received 1 mg/kg S(+)-ketamine as the caudal group and the other group received 1 mg/kg S(+)-ketamine as the intravascular group. Postsurgical measurements included the effectiveness of postsurgical analgesia, which was assessed by using the observational pain scale (OPS), duration of analgesia, sedation score, and hemodynamic and respiratory monitoring.


The mean time to first analgesia was clearly longer in the caudal ketamine group (13.35 h) than in the intravenous ketamine (9.93 h) group (P < 0.01). During the 24-h observation time, fewer children asked for additional analgesic drugs in the caudal group (8 of 18, 44.4 %) than in the intravenous group (12 of 18, 66.6 %; P = 0.01). The times to first micturation and spontaneous leg movements and the incidence of nausea and vomiting were similar in the two groups. The OPS and sedation scores after operation showed no obvious differences between the groups at any time.


Although caudal ketamine provides good postsurgical analgesia due to its potential neurotoxicity and only small clinical differences with intravenous ketamine, the administration of intravenous ketamine might be a reasonable option to potentially extend the postsurgical analgesic effect of the caudal administration of local anesthetics in children undergoing Salter osteotomy.


Salter innominate osteotomy Caudal analgesia Ketamine Pediatrics