Logica Universalis

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 13–29

Applications of Squares of Oppositions and Their Generalizations in Philosophical Analysis


DOI: 10.1007/s11787-007-0028-5

Cite this article as:
Woleński, J. Log. univers. (2008) 2: 13. doi:10.1007/s11787-007-0028-5


This papers examines formal properties of logical squares and their generalizations in the form of hexagons and octagons. Then, several applications of these constructions in philosophical analysis are elaborated. They concern contingency (accidentality), possibility, permission, axiological concepts (bonum and malum), the generalized Hume thesis (deontic and epistemic modalities), determinism, truth and consistency (in various senses. It is shown that relations between notions used in various branches of philosophy fall into the same formal scheme.

Mathematics Subject Classification (2000).



Logical relations logical square logical hexagon logical octagon 

Copyright information

© Birkhaeuser 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PhilosophyJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland