Logica Universalis

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 31–41

Visualizations of the Square of Opposition


DOI: 10.1007/s11787-007-0023-x

Cite this article as:
Bernhard, P. Log. univers. (2008) 2: 31. doi:10.1007/s11787-007-0023-x


In logic, diagrams have been used for a very long time. Nevertheless philosophers and logicians are not quite clear about the logical status of diagrammatical representations. Fact is that there is a close relationship between particular visual (resp. graphical) properties of diagrams and logical properties. This is why the representation of the four categorical propositions by different diagram systems allows a deeper insight into the relations of the logical square. In this paper I want to give some examples.

Mathematics Subject Classification (2000).

Primary 03B99 Secondary 03A05 


Square of opposition visualization diagrams Euler Venn Frege Peirce 

Copyright information

© Birkhaeuser 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

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