Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society

, Volume 76, Issue 10, pp 1175-1181

First online:

Trans-free margarine from highly saturated soybean oil

  • Li Lee KokAffiliated withDepartment of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University
  • , Walter R. FehrAffiliated withDepartment of Agronomy, Iowa State University
  • , Earl G. HammondAffiliated withDepartment of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University
  • , Pamela J. WhiteAffiliated withDepartment of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University Email author 

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Highly saturated (HS) soybean oil (SBO), which contained 23.3% palmitic acid (C16:0) and 20.0% stearic acid (C18:0), was interesterified at 70°C in preparation for the processing of a trans-free margarine. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the triacylglycerides and analysis of the sn-2 fatty acid composition showed no further change after 10 min of interesterification. The interesterified HS SBO had a slip melting point of 34.5°C, compared with 9.5°C in the non-interesterified HS SBO, and increased melting and crystallization temperatures were found using differential scanning calorimetry. Analysis of solid-fat content by nuclear magnetic resonance revealed the presence of only a small amount of solids above 33°C. A 50:50 blend of interesterified HS SBO and SBO with a typical fatty acid composition was used to make the margarine. Compared to commercial soft-tub margarine, the maximal peak force on the texture analyzer of this blended margarine was about 2.3 times greater, the hardness about 2.6 times greater, and adhesiveness about 1.5 times greater. There were small but statistically significant differences (α=0.05) in the sensory properties of spreadability, graininess, and waxiness between the commercial and blended margarines at 4.5°C and, except for graininess, at 11.5°C. These very small differences suggest a potential use for HS SBO in margarine products.

Key words

Differential scanning calorimetry highly saturated soybean oil high-performance liquid chromatography interesterification margarine sensory evaluation slip melting point sn-2 position composition solid fat content texture analyzer