Mensink, R.P., and M.B. Katan, Effect of Dietary trans
Fatty Acids on High-Density and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Healthy Subjects, N. Eng. J. Med. 323
Zock, P.L., and M.B. Katan, Hydrogenation Alternatives: Effects of trans
Fatty Acids and Stearic Acid Versus Linoleic Acid on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in Humans, J. Lipid Res. 33
Mensink, R.P., P.L. Zock, M.B. Katan, and G. Hornstra, Effect of Dietary cis
Fatty Acids on Serum Lipoproteins Levels in Humans,:1493–1501 (1992).PubMed
Nestel, P., M. Noakes, B. Belling, R. McArthur, P. Clifton, E. Janus, and M. Abbey, Plasma Lipoprotein Lipid and Lp(a) Changes with Substitution of Elaidic Acid for Oleic Acid in the Diet,:1029–1036 (1992).PubMed
Lichtenstein, A.H., L.M. Ausman, W. Carrasco, J.L. Jenner, J.M. Ordovas, and E.J. Schaefer, Hydrogenation Impairs the Hydrogenation Effect of Corn Oil in Humans. Hydrogenation, trans
Fatty Acids, and Plasma Lipids, Arterioscler. Thromb. 13
Judd, J.T., A. Clevidence, R.A. Muesing, J. Wittes, M.E. Sunkin, and J.J. Podczasy, Dietary trans
Fatty Acids: Effects on Plasma Lipids and Lipoproteins on Healthy Men and Women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59
Almendingen, K., O. Jordal, P. Kierulf, B. Sandstad, and J.I. Pedersen, Effects of Partially Hydrogenated Fish Oil, Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil and Butter on Serum Lipoproteins and Lp(a) in Men, J. Lipid Res. 36
Koletzko, B., Trans
Fatty Acids may Impair Biosynthesis of Long-Chain Polyunsaturates and Growth in Man, Acta Paediatr
Decsi, T., and B. Koletzko, Do trans
Fatty Acids Impair Linoleic Acid Metabolism in Children? Ann. Nutr. Metab. 39
Houwelingen, A.C.V., and G. Hornstra, Trans Fatty Acids in Early Human Development, World Rev. Nutr. Diet 75:175–178 (1994).
Ayagari, A., J.M. Peepies, and S.E. Carlson, Relationship of Isomeric Fatty Acids in Human Cord Blood to N3 and N6 Status, Pediatr. Res. 39:304A (abstract) (1996).
Chen, Z.Y., G. Pelletier, R. Hollywood, and W.M.N. Ratnayake, Trans
Fatty Acid Isomers in Canadian Human Milk, Lipids 30
Ratnayake, W.M.N., and Z.Y. Chen, Trans Fatty Acids in Canadian Breast Milk and Diet, in Development and Processing of Vegetable Oils for Human Nutrition, edited by R. Przybylski and B.E. McDonald, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1995, pp. 20–35.
Ratnayake, W.M.N., and Z.Y. Chen, Trans
, n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids in Canadian Human Milk, Lipids 31
Beare, J.L., D. Tovel, and T.K. Murray, The Total cis
Methylene Interrupted Fatty Acids in Canadian Margarines, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 93
Beare-Rogers, J.L., L.M. Gray, and R. Hollywood, The Linoleic Acid and trans
Fatty Acids of Margarines, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32
Sahasrabudhe, M.R., and C.J. Kurian, Fatty Acid Composition of Margarines in Canada, Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 12:140–146 (1979).
Beare-Rogers, J.L., R. Hollywood, and E. O’Grady, Fatty Acids in Canadian Margarines, Can. J. Pub. Health 76:276–277 (1985).
Ratnayake, W.M.N., R. Hollywood, and E. O’Grady, Fatty Acids in Canadian Margarines, Can. Inst. Sci. Technol. J. 24:81–86 (1991).
Ratnayake, W.M.N., and G. Pelletier, Positional and Geometrical Isomers of Linoleic Acid in Partially Hydrogenated Oils, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69
Ratnayake, W.M.N. Determination of trans Unsaturation by Infrared Spectrometry and Determination of Fatty Acid Composition of Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatography/Infrared Spectrometry: Collaborative Study, J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. Internation. 78:783–802 (1995).
Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, 16th ed., edited by P. Cunniff, (March Supplement), AOCS International, Arlington, 1995, Official Method 994.15, p. 26.
Ministry of Supply and Services of Canada, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Composition of Special Margarines, Cat. No. H44-46/1980E, 1980.
Ministry of Supply and Services of Canada, Nutrition Recommendations: the Report of the Scientific Review Committee Ottawa, Department of National Health and Welfare, 1990.
Ovesen, L., T. Leth, and K. Hansen, Fatty Acid Composition of Danish Margarines and Shortenings, with Special Emphasis on trans
Fatty Acids, Lipids 31
Bayard, C.C., and R.L. Wolff, Trans
-18:1 Acids in French Tub Margarines and Shortenings: Recent Trends, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 72
Mansour, M.P., and A.J. Sinclair, The trans Fatty Acid and Positional (sn-2) Fatty Acid Composition of Some Australian Margarines, Dairy Blends and Animal Fats, Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 3:155–163 (1993).
Kafatos, A., D. Chrysafidis, and E. Peraki, Fatty Acid Composition of Greek Margarines. Margarine Consumption by the Population of Crete and Its Relationship to Adipose Tissue Analysis, Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 45:107–114 (1994).
Lake, R., B. Thomson, G. Devane, and P. Scholes, Trans
Fatty Acid Content of Selected New Zealand Foods, J. Food Comp. Anal. 9
Ulberth, F., and M. Henninger, Simplified Method for the Determination of trans
Monoenes in Edible Fats by TLC-FID, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69
Emken, E.A., Trans Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: Physicochemical Properties, Intake and Metabolism, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62:659S-669S (1995).
Lands, W.E.M., Biochemistry and Physiology of n-3 Fatty Acids, FASEB J, 6
Simopoulos, A.P., and J. Robinson, The Omega Plan, Harper-Collins, New York, 1988, pp. 24–36.
Privett, O.S., F. Phillips, H. Shimasaki, T. Nozawa, and E.C. Nickell, Studies of Effects of trans
Fatty Acids in the Diet on Lipid Metabolism in Essential Fatty Acid Deficient Rats, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30
Hwang, D.H., and J.E. Kinsella, The Effects of trans,trans
-Methyl Linoleate on the Concentration of Prostaglandins and Their Precursors in Rats, Prostaglandins 17
Hill, E.G., S.B. Johnson, L.D. Lawson, M.M. Mahfouz, and R.T. Holman, Perturbation of Essential Fatty Acids by Dietary Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79
Mahfouz, M.M., S. Johnson, and R.T. Holman, The Effect of Isomeric trans
-18:1 Acids on the Desaturation of Palmitic, Linoleic and Eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic Acids by Rat Liver Microsomes, Lipids 19
Lawson, L.D., E.G. Hill, and R.T. Holman, Suppression of Arachidonic Acid in Lipids of Rat Tissues by Dietary Mixed Isomeric cis
Octadecenoates, J. Nutr. 113
Beyers, E.C., and E.A. Emken, Metabolites of cis,trans
Isomers of Linoleic Acid in Mice and Incorporation into Tissue Lipids, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1082
Holman, R.T., F. Pusch, B. Svigen, and H.J. Dutton, Unusual Isomeric Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Liver Phospholipids of Rats Fed Hydrogenated Oil, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88
Ratnayake, W.M.N., Z.Y. Chen, G. Pelletier, and D. Weber, Occurrence of 5c
-Eicosatetraenoic Acid and Other Unusual Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Rats Fed Partially Hydrogenated Canola Oil, Lipids 29
Ackman, R.G., S.N. Hooper, and D.L. Hooper, Linolenic Acid Artifacts from the Deodorization of Oils, J. Am. Oil Chem. 51:42–49 (1974)
Grundy, S.M., Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease, in Nutrition and Disease Update. Heart Disease, edited by D. Kritchevsky and K.K. Carrol, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1994, pp. 211–246.
Developing Brain and Behaviour: The Role of Lipids in Infant Formula, edited by J. Dobbins, Academic Press, San Diego, 1997, 537 pages.
Domestic Production of Deodorized Oils and Fats, Catalogue 32006, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1996, Vol. 46, No. 12, p. 8.
Ratnayake, W.M.N., R. Hollywood, E. O’Grady, and G. Pelletier, Fatty Acids in Some Common Food Items in Canada, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 12
National Institute of Nutrition, Report on Tracking Nutrition Trends 1989–1994–1997, Canadian Facts, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 1997, pp. 27 and 28.