Trans-free bakery shortenings from mango kernel and mahua fats by fractionation and blending

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Abstract

Bakery shortenings prepared by hydrogenation contain high levels of trans fatty acids, which are considered to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The shortenings prepared from maogo kernel and mahua fats have no trans fatty acids. Mahua fat was fractionated by dry fractionation to obtain a high-melting fraction (10% yield, Mh1). Mango fat was fractionated by two-stage solvent fractionation, separating about 15% high-melting fraction (Mk1) in the first stage, followed by 40% stearin (Mk2) in the second stage. The formulation containing 80% Mh1 and 20% of mango middle stearin fraction (Mk2) showed melting characteristics and onset and enthalpy of crystallization similar to those of commercial hydrogenated shortenings designed for cakes and biscuits. The formulation suitable for puff pastry shortening was prepared by blending 50% mango 1st stearin (Mk1) and 50% mahua fat with addition of 5–7% of fully hydrogenated vegetable oil. The formulations having melting characteristics similar to those of commercial cake and biscuit shortenings were also prepared by blending 40% mango fat and 60% mahua fat with 5–7% incorporation of fully hydrogenated peanut oil. However, these formulations showed delayed transition to the stable forms compared to those of commercial samples. Fatty acid composition revealed that commercial hydrogenated shortenings consisted of 18–29% trans oleic acid, whereas the formulations we prepared did not contain any trans acids. The iodine values of commercial samples were 57–58, whereas the value for the formulations prepared were 47–53. The consistency of the prepared samples as measured by cone penetrometer was slightly harder than commercial samples. These studies showed that it is possible to prepare bakery shortenings with no trans fatty acids by using mango and mahua fats and their fractions.