Characterization and oxidative stability of enzymatically produced fish and canola oil-based structured lipids

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Abstract

Two-kilogram quantities of structured lipids (SL) of menhaden fish and canola oils containing caprylic acids (8∶0) were produced in a laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor by acidolysis catalyzed by an immobilized lipase, Lipozyme IM, from Rhizomucor miehei. SL were characterized and their oxidative stabilities investigated. The SL contained 29.5% 8∶0 for fish oil and 40.15 for canola oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of fish oil remained unchanged after the modification while PUFA of canola oil were reduced from 29.6 to 21.2%. Monoenes, especially 18∶1n−9, were completely replaced by 8∶0 in fish oil and reduced from 61.9 to 34.7% in canola oil. Downstream processing of enzymatically produced SL led to loss in natural total tocopherol contents of the fish and canola oils. The effects of antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (TOC), tert-butylhydroxyquinone (TBHQ), and combinations thereof on the oxidative stability of SL were investigated. SL were analyzed for oxidative stability index, peroxide value, conjugated diene content, free fatty acid content, iodine value, saponification number, and thiobarbituric acid value. Iodine value of unmodified fish oil (154.71) was reduced to 144.10 and that of canola oil (114.49) to 97.27 after modification. The SN increased from 183.72 to 242.63 for fish oil and from 172.50 to 227.90 for canola oil. TBHQ exhibited better antioxidant effects than TOC. A combination of TBHQ/TOC also proved to be an effective antioxidant for SL. We suggest the addition of antioxidants to enzymatically produced and purified SL.