Lipids

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 425–434

Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid and Ex Vivo Neutrophil Responses are Differentially Altered in Dogs Fed Fish- and Linseed-Oil Containing Diets at the Same n-6:n-3 Fatty Acid Ratio

  • Mark K. Waldron
  • Steven S. Hannah
  • John E. Bauer
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11745-012-3652-7

Cite this article as:
Waldron, M.K., Hannah, S.S. & Bauer, J.E. Lipids (2012) 47: 425. doi:10.1007/s11745-012-3652-7

Abstract

The effect of diets containing either 18-carbon n-3 fatty acids (FA) or 20/22-carbon n-3 FA on canine plasma and neutrophil membrane fatty acid composition, superoxide and leukotriene B4 and B5 production when fed at the same n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio was investigated. Four groups of ten dogs each were fed a low fat basal diet supplemented with safflower oil (SFO), beef tallow (BTO), linseed oil (LSO), or Menhaden fish oil (MHO) for 28 days. Dietary fat provided 40.8% of energy and the n-6:n-3 of the diets were ~100:1, 9.7:1, 0.38:1, and 0.34:1 for the SFO, BTO, LSO and MHO groups, respectively. The MHO and LSO groups had increased incorporation of EPA and DPA in both the plasma and neutrophil membranes compared to the BTO and SFO groups. DHA was observed in the MHO but not in the LSO group. Neutrophils from the MHO diet fed dogs had less LTB4 and greater LTB5 than the other three groups. The LSO group also showed a reduction in LTB4 and greater LTB5 production compared to the SFO and BTO groups. Both LSO and MHO groups had lower superoxide production compared to the SFO and BTO groups. Diets containing 18 or 20/22 carbon n-3 FA fed at the same n-6:n-3 resulted in differential incorporation of long chain n-3 FA into neutrophil membranes. Thus, fatty acid type and chain length individually affect neutrophil membrane structure and function and these effects exist independent of dietary total n-6:total n-3 FA ratios.

Keywords

NeutrophilsCaninen-3 fatty acidsLeukotrienesSuperoxide anion

Abbreviations

AAFCO

Association of American Feed Control Officials

ALA

Alpha-linolenic acid

ARA

Arachidonic acid

BTO

Beef tallow enriched diet

DPAn-3

Docosapentaenoic acid n-3

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FA

Fatty acids

FAME

Fatty acid methyl ester(s)

LNA

Linoleic acid

LSO

Linseed oil enriched diet

LTB4

Leukotriene B4

LTB5

Leukotriene B5

MHO

Menhaden oil enriched diet

PMA

Phorbol myristic acetate

SAF

Safflower oil enriched diet

SOD

Super oxide dismutase

TBHQ

tert-butylhydroquinone

tot(n-6):tot(n-3)

Total n-6 to total n-3 fatty acid ratio

Copyright information

© AOCS 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark K. Waldron
    • 1
    • 3
  • Steven S. Hannah
    • 2
  • John E. Bauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Nestlé Purina PetCareSt. LouisUSA
  3. 3.Nestlé Purina PetCareCheckerboard Square ResearchSt. LouisUSA