Effects of a diet high in plant sterols, vegetable proteins, and viscous fibers (dietary portfolio) on circulating sterol levels and red cell fragility in hypercholesterolemic subjects
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Plant sterols, soy proteins, viscous fibers, and nuts are advised for cholesterol reduction, but their combined effect on plant sterol absorption has never been tested. We assessed their combined action on serum sterols in hyperlipidemic subjects who were following low-saturated fat diets before starting the study and who returned to these diets post-test. The 1-mon test (combination) diet was high in plant sterols (1 g/1,000 kcal), soy protein (23 g/1,000 kcal), viscous fiber (9 g/1,000 kcal), and almonds (14 g/1000 kcal). Fasting blood was obtained for serum lipids and sterols, and erythrocytes were obtained for fragility prior to and at 2-wk intervals during the study. The combination diet raised serum campesterol concentrations by 50% and β-sitosterol by 27%, although these changes were not significant after Bonferroni correction; near-maximal rises were found by the end of the first week, but no change was found in red cell fragility despite a 29% reduction in the LDL cholesterol level. No significant associations were observed between changes in red cell fragility and blood lipids or sterols. We conclude that plant sterols had a minimal impact on serum sterol concentrations or red cell fragility in hyperlipidemic subjects on diets that greatly reduced their serum lipids.
Jones, P.J., Ntanios, F.Y., Raeini-Sarjaz, M., and Vanstone, C.A. (1999) Cholesterol-Lowering Efficacy of a Sitostanol-Containing Phytosterol Mixture with a Prudent Diet in Hyperlipidemic Men, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69, 1144–1150.PubMed
Law, M. (2000) Plant Sterol and Stanol Margarines and Health, Br. Med. J. 320, 861–864.CrossRef
Ratnayake, W.M., L'Abbe, M.R., Mueller, R., Hayward, S., Plouffe, L., Hollywood, R., and Trick, K. (2000) Vegetable Oils High in Phytosterols Make Erythrocytes Less Deformable and Shorten the Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, J. Nutr. 130, 1166–1178.PubMed
Jenkins, D.J., Kendall, C.W., Faulkner, D., Vidgen, E., Trautwein, E.A., Parker, T.L., Marchie, A., Koumbridis, G., Lapsley, K.G., Josse, R.G., et al. (2002) A Dietary Portfolio Approach to Cholesterol Reduction: Combined Effects of Plant Sterols, Vegetable Proteins, and Viscous Fibers in Hypercholesterolemia, Metabolism 51, 1596–1604.PubMedCrossRef
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (1998) Food Labeling: Health Claims: Soluble Fiber from Certain Foods and Coronary Heart Disease, FDA, Rockville, MD, Docket No. 96P-0338.
Anderson, J.W., Allgood, L.D., Lawrence, A., Altringer, L.A., Jerdack, G.R., Hengehold, D.A., and Morel, J.G. (2000) Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Psyllium Intake Adjunctive to Diet Therapy in Men and Women with Hypercholesterolemia: Meta-analysis of 8 Controlled Trials, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 472–479.PubMed
Brown, L., Rosner, B., Willett, W.W., and Sacks, F.M. (1999) Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Dietary Fiber: A Meta-analysis, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69, 30–42.PubMed
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (1999) FDA Final Rule for Food Labelling: Health Claims: Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease, Fed. Regist. 64, 57699–57733.
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (2001) Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), JAMA 285, 2486–2497.CrossRef
Lipid Research Clinics (1982) Population Studies Data Book. Volume II: The Prevalence Study-Nutrient Intake, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Publication no. (NIH) 82-2014.
Jones, P.J., Raeini-Sarjaz, M., Ntanios, F.Y., Vanstone, C.A., Feng, J.Y., and Parsons, W.E. (2000) Modulation of Plasma Lipid Levels and Cholesterol Kinetics by Phytosterol Versus Phytostanol Esters, J. Lipid Res. 41, 697–705.PubMed
Lipid Research Clinics (1982) Manual of Laboratory Operations: Lipid and Lipoprotein Analysis, revised, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Publication no. (NIH) 75-678.
Warnick, G.R., Benderson, J., and Albers, J.J. (1982) Dextran Sulfate-Mg2+ Precipitation Procedure for Quantitation of High-Density-Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Clin. Chem. 28, 1379–1388.PubMed
Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I., and Fredrickson, D.S. (1972) Estimation of the Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Plasma, Without Use of the Preparative Ultracentrifuge, Clin. Chem. 18, 499–502.PubMed
Fink, P.C., Romer, M., Haeckel, R., Fateh-Moghadam, A., Delanghe, J., Gressner, A.M., and Dubs, R.W. (1989) Measurement of Proteins with the Behring Nephelometer. A Multicentre Evaluation, J. Clin. Chem. Biochem. 27, 261–276.
Naito, Y., Konishi, C., and Ohara, N. (2000) Blood Coagulation and Osmolar Tolerance of Erythrocytes in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Given Rapeseed Oil or Soybean Oil as the Only Dietary Fat, Toxicol. Lett. 117, 209–215.CrossRef
The Agricultural Research Service (1992) Composition of Foods, Agriculture Handbook No. 8. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1980) AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, AOAC, Washington, DC.
Cunnane, S.C., Hamadeh, M.J., Liede, A.C., Thompson, L.U., Wolever, T.M., and Jenkins, D.J. (1995) Nutritional Attributes of Traditional Flaxseed in Healthy Young Adults, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61, 62–68.PubMed
Anderson, J.W., and Bridges, S.R. (1988) Dietary Fiber Content of Selected Foods, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47, 440–447.PubMed
SAS Institute (1997) SAS/STAT User's Guide, edn. 6.12, SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2001) Food Labeling: Health Claims; Soluble Fiber from Whole Oats and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, pp. 15343–15344, FDA, Rockville, MD, Docket No. 95P-0197.
Olson, B.H., Anderson, S.M., Becker, M.P., Anderson, J.W., Hunninghake, D.B., Jenkins, D.J., LaRosa, J.C., Rippe, J.M., Roberts, D.C., Stoy, D.B., et al. Psyllium-Enriched Cereals Lower Blood Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol, but Not HDL Cholesterol, in Hypercholesterolemic Adults: Results of a Meta-analysis, J. Nutr. 127, 1973–1980.
Jenkins, D.J., Kendall, C.W., Marchie, A., Parker, T.L., Connelly, P.W., Qian, W., Haight, J.S., Faulker, D., Vidgen, E., Lapsley, K.G., and Spiller, G.A. (2002) Dose Response of Almonds on Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors: Blood Lipids, Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins, Lipoprotein(a), Homocysteine, and Pulmonary Nitric Oxide: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Trial, Circulation 106, 1327–1332.PubMedCrossRef
Spiller, G.A., Jenkins, D.A., Bosello, O., Gates, J.E., Cragen, L.N., and Bruce, B. (1998) Nuts and Plasma Lipids: An Almond-Based Diet Lowers LDL-C While Preserving HDL-C, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 17, 285–290.PubMed
International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (1971) Recommended Methods for Radioisotope Red-Cell Survival Studies. A Report by the ICSH Panel on Diagnostic Applications of Radioisotopes in Haematology, Br. J. Haematol. 21, 241–250.
Goodman, J.W., and Smith, L.H. (1961) Erythrocyte Life Span in Normal Mice and in Radiation Bone Marrow Chimeras, Am. J. Physiol. 200, 764–770.PubMed
Young, L.E., Izzo, M.J., and Platzer, R.F. (1951) Hereditary Spherocytosis, I. Clinical, Hematologic and Genetic Features in 28 Cases, with Particular Reference to the Osmotic and Mechanical Fragility of Incubated Erythrocytes, Blood 6, 1073.PubMed
- Effects of a diet high in plant sterols, vegetable proteins, and viscous fibers (dietary portfolio) on circulating sterol levels and red cell fragility in hypercholesterolemic subjects
Volume 40, Issue 2 , pp 169-174
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
- 2. Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 3. Department of Medicine Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 4. Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, M5S 3E2, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 5. Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, M5S 3E2, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 7. Univer Health Institute, Unilever R&D, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
- 8. The Almond Board of California, 95354, Modesto, California
- 10. Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, M5S 3E2, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 9. Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, M5S 3E2, Toronto, Ontario, Canada