Dietary intakes and food sources of n−6 and n−3 PUFA in french adult men and women
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The intake of individual n−6 and n−3 PUFA has been estimated in 4,884 adult subjects (2,099 men and 2,785 women), volunteers from the French SU.VI.MAX intervention trial. The food intakes of each subject were recorded in at least ten 24-h record questionnaires completed over a period of 2.5 yr, allowing the estimation of the daily intake of energy; total fat; and linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), n−3 docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. The mean total fat intake corresponded to 94.1 g/d (36.3% of total energy intake) in men and 73.4 g/d (38.1% of energy) in women. The intake of linoleic acid was 10.6 g/d in men and 8.1 g/d in women, representing 4.2% of energy intake; that of α-linolenic acid was 0.94 g/d in men and 0.74 g/d in women, representing 0.37% of energy intake, with a mean linoleic/α-linolenic acid ratio of 11.3. The mean intakes of long-chain PUFA were: arachidonic acid, 204 mg/d in men and 152 mg/d in women; EPA, 150 mg/d in men and 118 mg/d in women; DPA, 75 mg/d in men and 56 mg/d in women; DHA, 273 mg/d in men and 226 mg/d in women; long-chain n−3 PUFA, 497 mg/d in men and 400 mg/d in women. Ninety-five percent of the sample consumed less than 0.5% of energy as α-linolenic acid, which is well below the current French recommendation for adults (0.8% of energy). In contrast, the mean intakes of long-chain n−6 and n−3 PUFA appear fairly high and fit the current French recommendations (total long-chain PUFA: 500 mg/d in men and 400 mg/d in women; DHA: 120 mg/d in men and 100 mg/d in women). The intakes of α-linolenic acid, and to a lesser extent of linoleic acid, were highly correlated with that of lipids. Whereas the main source of linoleic acid was vegetable oils, all food types contributed to α-linolenic acid intake, the main ones being animal products (meat, poultry, and dairy products). The main source of EPA and DHA (and of total long-chain n−3 PUFA) was fish and seafood, but the major source of DPA was meat, poultry, and eggs. Fish and seafood consumption showed very large interindividual variations, the low consumers being at risk of insufficient n−3 PUFA intake.
Kris-Etherton, P.M., Shaffer Taylor, D., and Yu-Poth, S. (2000) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Food Chain in the United States, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 179S-189S.PubMed
Sanders, T.A.B. (2000) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Food Chain in Europe, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 176S-178S.PubMed
Legrand, P., Bourre, J.M., Descomps, B., Durand, G., and Renaud, S. (2001) Lipides, in Apports nutritionnels conseillés pour la population françaide, 3rd edn. (Martin, A., ed.), pp. 63–82, Tec & Doc, Paris.
Simopoulos, A.P., Leaf, A., and Salem, N., Jr. (1999) Workshop on the Essentiality of and Recommended Dietary Intakes for Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 18, 487–489.PubMed
Combe, N., and Boué, C. (2001) Apports alimentaires en acides linoléique et alpha-linolénique d'une population d'Aquitaine, Oléag. Corps Gras Lipides 8, 118–121.
Knutsen, S.F., Fraser, G.E., Beeson, W.L., Lindsted, K.D., and Shavlik, D.J. (2003) Comparison of Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids with Dietary Fatty Acids as Measured by 24-Hour Recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire in Black and White Adventists: the Adventist Health Study, Ann. Epidemiol. 13, 119–127.PubMedCrossRef
Okita, M., Yoshida, S., Yamamoto, J. Suzuki, K., Kaneyuki, T., Kubota, M., and Sasagawa, T. (1995) n−3 and n−6 Fatty Acid Intake and Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in Middle-Aged Women Living in Rural and Urban Areas in Okayama Prefecture, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo) 41, 313–323.
Kobayashi, M., Sasaki, S., Kawabata, T., Hasegawa, K., and Tsugane, S. (2003) Validity of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire Used in the 5-Year Follow-up Survey of the JPHC Study Cohort I to Assess Fatty Acid Intake: Comparison with Dietary Records and Serum Phospholipid Level, J. Epidemiol. 13, S64-S81.PubMed
Innis, S.M., and Elias, S.L. (2003) Intakes of Essential n−6 and n−3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Among Pregnant Canadian Women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77, 473–478.PubMed
Meyer, B.J., Mann, N.J., Lewis, J.L., Milligan, G.C., Sinclair, A.J., and Howe, P.R. (2003) Dietary Intakes and Food Sources of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Lipids 38, 391–398.PubMed
Hercberg, S., Preziosi, P., Briancon, S., Galan, P., Triol, I., Malvy, D., Roussel, A.M., and Favier, A. (1998) A Primary Prevention Trial Using Nutritional Doses of Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals in Cardiovascular Diseases and Cancers in a General Population: The SU.VI.MAX Study—Design, Methods, and Participant Characteristics. SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants, Control Clin. Trials 19, 336–351.PubMedCrossRef
Le Moullec, N., Deheeger, M., Preziosi, P., Monteiro, P., Valeix, P., Rolland-Cachera, M.-F., Potier de Courcy, G., Christidès, J.-P., Cherouvrier, F., Galan, P., and Hercberg, S. (1996) Validation du manuel-photos utilisé pour l'enquête alimentaire de l'étude SU.VI.MAX, Cah. Nutr. Diét. 31, 158–164.
Mennen, L.I., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Arnault, N., Potier de Courcy, G., and Hercberg, S. (2004) The Use of Computerised 24 h Dietary Recalls in the French SU.VI.MAX Study: Number of Recalls Required, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 56, 659–665.CrossRef
Hercberg, S. (2004) Table de composition des aliments SUVI-MAX, Editions INSERM, Paris, in press (the part of the table dealing with total fat and n−6 and n−3 PUFA can be obtained from P. Astorg on request, in the form of an Excel file).
Favier, J.C., Ireland-Ripert, J., Toque, C., and Feinberg, M. (1995) Répertoire général des aliments, table de composition, 2nd edn., Tec & Doc, Paris.
Ireland, J., Favier, J.C., and Feinberg, M. (2002) Répertoire général des aliments. Tome 2: Produits laitiers, Tec & Doc, Paris.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16, 2003. Netlink: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp (accessed March–June 2003).
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, (2004) Fatty Acids. Supplement to McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.
Ma, J., Folsom, A.R., Shahar, E., and Eckfeldt, J.H., and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Investigators (1995) Plasma Fatty Acid Composition as an Indicator of Habitual Dietary Fat Intake in Middle-Aged Adults. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Investigators, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 564–571.PubMed
Tokudome, Y., Imaeda, N., Ikeda, M., Kitagawa, I., Fujiwara, N., and Tokudome, S. (1999) Foods Contributing to Absolute Intake and Variance in Intake of Fat, Fatty Acids and Cholesterol in Middle-Aged Japanese, J. Epidemiol. 9, 78–90.PubMed
Voskuil, D.W., Feskens, E.J., Katan, M.B., and Kromhout, D. (1996) Intake and Sources of α-Linolenic Acid in Dutch Elderly Men, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50, 784–787.PubMed
Hulshof, K.F.A.M., van Erp-Baart, M.A., Anttolainen, M., Becker, W., Church, S.M., Couet, C., Herrmann-Kunz, E., Kesteloot, H., Leth, T., and Martins, I. (1999) Intake of Fatty Acids in Western Europe with Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids: The TRANSFAIR Study, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 143–157.PubMedCrossRef
Sugano, M. (1996) Characteristics of Fats in Japanese Diets and Current Recommendations, Lipids 31, S283-S286.PubMed
Sugano, M., and Hirahara, F. (2000) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Food Chain in Japan, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 189S-196S.PubMed
Kuriki, K., Nagaya, T., Topkudome, Y., Imaeda, N., Fujiwara, N., Sato, J., Goto, C., Ikeda, M., Maki, S., Tajima, K., and Tokudome, S. (2003) Plasma Concentrations of (n−3) Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids Are Good Biomarkers of Relative Dietary Fatty Acid Intakes: A Cross-Sectional Study, J. Nutr. 133, 3643–3650.PubMed
Linseisen, J., Bergstrom, E., Gafa, L., Gonzalez, C.A., Thiebaut, A., Trichopoulou, A., Tumino, R., Navarro, S.C., Martinez, G.C., Mattisson, I., et al. (2002) Consumption of Added Fats and Oils in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Centres Across 10 European Countries as Assessed by 24-Hour Dietary Recalls, Public Health Nutr. 5, 1227–1242.PubMedCrossRef
Amiano, P., Dorronsoro, M., de Renobales, M., Ruiz de Gordoa, J.C., Irigoyen, I., and and the EPIC Group of Spain (2001) Very-Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids as Markers for Habitual Fish Intake in a Population Consuming Mainly Lean Fish: The EPIC Cohort of Gipuzkoa, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 55, 827–832.PubMedCrossRef
Mann, N.J., Johnson, L.G., Warrick, G.E., and Sinclair, A.J. (1995) The Arachidonic Acid Content of the Australian Diet Is Lower than Previously Estimated, J. Nutr. 125, 2528–2535.PubMed
Welch, A., Lund, E., Amiano, P., Dorronsoro, M., Brustad, M., Kumle, M., Rodriguez, M., Lasheras, C., Janzon, N., Jansson, J., and Luben, R. (2002) Variability of Fish Consumption Within the 10 European Countries Participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study, Public Health Nutr. 5, 1273–1285.PubMedCrossRef
Pawlosky, R.J., Hibbeln, J.R., Lin, Y., Goodson, S., Riggs, P., Sebring, N., Brown, G.L., and Salem, N., Jr. (2003) Effects of Beef- and Fish-Based Diets on the Kinetics of n−3 Fatty Acid Metabolism in Human Subjects, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77, 565–572.PubMed
Sinclair, A.J., Attar-Bashi, A.M., and Li, D. (2002) What Is the Role of α-Linolenic Acid for Mammals?, Lipids 37, 1113–1123.PubMed
- Dietary intakes and food sources of n−6 and n−3 PUFA in french adult men and women
Volume 39, Issue 6 , pp 527-535
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. UMR INSERM 557/INRA/CNAM Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle, Institut Scientifique et Technique de la Nutrition et de l'Alimentation (ISTNA), Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM), 5 rue du Vertbois, 75003, Paris, France