Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 33, Issue 5, pp 1905–1912

Effects of carbon source, polyethylene glycol and abscisic acid on secondary embryo induction and maturation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) microspore-derived embryos

  • A. Yadollahi
  • M. R. Abdollahi
  • A. Moieni
  • M. Danaee
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11738-011-0738-4

Cite this article as:
Yadollahi, A., Abdollahi, M.R., Moieni, A. et al. Acta Physiol Plant (2011) 33: 1905. doi:10.1007/s11738-011-0738-4


In this study, the effects of carbon sources, abscisic acid (ABA) either alone or in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were evaluated on secondary embryo (SE) induction and maturation in rapeseed microspore-derived embryos (MDE) of cultivars Global, PF704 and Option. Among various carbon sources tested (sucrose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol), the use of 0.3 M (300 mOsml−1) glucose and 0.2 M (200 mOsml−1) sorbitol in SE induction medium (for cultivars Global and PF704) and sorbitol at 0.2 and 0.3 M (200 and 300 mOsml−1, for cultivar Option), induced the highest secondary embryogenesis percentage (%SE). The highest number of SEs per each MDE (SE/MDE) was observed with 0.2 M (200 mOsml−1) sorbitol in cultivar Global and with 0.3 M (300 mOsml−1) glucose in cultivars PF704 and Option. In another part of this study, the effect of different concentrations of ABA (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μM) and of a combined use of ABA (0 and 40 μM) and PEG 4000 or PEG 6000 at 15 g l−1 (3.75 and 2.5 mOsml−1, respectively) was examined on induction and maturation of SEs. In the first experiment, the use of ABA in SE induction medium reduced the mean number of SE/MDE in the three studied cultivars, whereas use of 40–80 μM ABA in SE induction medium increased the percentage of mature SEs in each cultivar. The combined use of PEG with or without ABA also reduced the mean number of SE/MDE compared with control, but resulted in significant enhancement of the percentages of mature SEs for the three cultivars.


Brassica napusMicrospore-derived embryosSecondary embryogenesisEmbryo maturationAbscisic acidPolyethylene glycol



Doubled haploid


Microspore-derived embryo


Secondary embryo


Secondary embryogenesis percentage (percentage of microspore-derived embryos producing secondary embryos)


Number of secondary embryos per each primary microspore-derived embryos


Secondary somatic embryo


Abscisic acid


Polyethylene glycol

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Yadollahi
    • 1
  • M. R. Abdollahi
    • 2
  • A. Moieni
    • 3
  • M. Danaee
    • 4
  1. 1.Young Researchers ClubIslamic Azad University of RoudehenTehranIslamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIslamic Republic of Iran
  3. 3.Plant Breeding Department, Faculty of AgricultureTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIslamic Republic of Iran
  4. 4.Islamic Azad University of RoudehenTehranIslamic Republic of Iran