Original Paper

Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, Volume 33, Issue 5, pp 1905-1912

First online:

Effects of carbon source, polyethylene glycol and abscisic acid on secondary embryo induction and maturation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) microspore-derived embryos

  • A. YadollahiAffiliated withYoung Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University of Roudehen
  • , M. R. AbdollahiAffiliated withDepartment of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University Email author 
  • , A. MoieniAffiliated withPlant Breeding Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University
  • , M. DanaeeAffiliated withIslamic Azad University of Roudehen

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In this study, the effects of carbon sources, abscisic acid (ABA) either alone or in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were evaluated on secondary embryo (SE) induction and maturation in rapeseed microspore-derived embryos (MDE) of cultivars Global, PF704 and Option. Among various carbon sources tested (sucrose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol), the use of 0.3 M (300 mOsml−1) glucose and 0.2 M (200 mOsml−1) sorbitol in SE induction medium (for cultivars Global and PF704) and sorbitol at 0.2 and 0.3 M (200 and 300 mOsml−1, for cultivar Option), induced the highest secondary embryogenesis percentage (%SE). The highest number of SEs per each MDE (SE/MDE) was observed with 0.2 M (200 mOsml−1) sorbitol in cultivar Global and with 0.3 M (300 mOsml−1) glucose in cultivars PF704 and Option. In another part of this study, the effect of different concentrations of ABA (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μM) and of a combined use of ABA (0 and 40 μM) and PEG 4000 or PEG 6000 at 15 g l−1 (3.75 and 2.5 mOsml−1, respectively) was examined on induction and maturation of SEs. In the first experiment, the use of ABA in SE induction medium reduced the mean number of SE/MDE in the three studied cultivars, whereas use of 40–80 μM ABA in SE induction medium increased the percentage of mature SEs in each cultivar. The combined use of PEG with or without ABA also reduced the mean number of SE/MDE compared with control, but resulted in significant enhancement of the percentages of mature SEs for the three cultivars.


Brassica napus Microspore-derived embryos Secondary embryogenesis Embryo maturation Abscisic acid Polyethylene glycol