, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 31-51

First online:

The Warring States Concept of Xing

  • Dan RobinsAffiliated withPhilosophy and Religion Program, School of Arts and Humanities, The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey Email author 

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This essay defends a novel interpretation of the term “xìng 性” as it occurs in Chinese texts of the late Warring States period (roughly 320–221 BCE). The term played an important role both in the famous controversy over the goodness or badness of people’s xìng and elsewhere in the intellectual discourse of the period. Extending especially the work of A.C. Graham, the essay stresses the importance for understanding xìng of early Chinese assumptions about spontaneity, continuity, health, and (in the human case) motivation. These assumptions make xìng fundamentally different from the contemporary nature concepts with which it is often equated. In particular, people’s xìng is not a near-equivalent of human nature or (in modern Chinese) of rénxìng 人性.


Xing Spontaneity Nature Health China