Brain Imaging and Behavior

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 502–516

Development and assessment of a composite score for memory in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)

  • Paul K. Crane
  • Adam Carle
  • Laura E. Gibbons
  • Philip Insel
  • R. Scott Mackin
  • Alden Gross
  • Richard N. Jones
  • Shubhabrata Mukherjee
  • S. McKay Curtis
  • Danielle Harvey
  • Michael Weiner
  • Dan Mungas
  • for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
ADNI: Friday Harbor 2011 Workshop SPECIAL ISSUE

DOI: 10.1007/s11682-012-9186-z

Cite this article as:
Crane, P.K., Carle, A., Gibbons, L.E. et al. Brain Imaging and Behavior (2012) 6: 502. doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9186-z

Abstract

We sought to develop and evaluate a composite memory score from the neuropsychological battery used in the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We used modern psychometric approaches to analyze longitudinal Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, 2 versions), AD Assessment Schedule - Cognition (ADAS-Cog, 3 versions), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Logical Memory data to develop ADNI-Mem, a composite memory score. We compared RAVLT and ADAS-Cog versions, and compared ADNI-Mem to RAVLT recall sum scores, four ADAS-Cog-derived scores, the MMSE, and the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes. We evaluated rates of decline in normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, ability to predict conversion from MCI to AD, strength of association with selected imaging parameters, and ability to differentiate rates of decline between participants with and without AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signatures. The second version of the RAVLT was harder than the first. The ADAS-Cog versions were of similar difficulty. ADNI-Mem was slightly better at detecting change than total RAVLT recall scores. It was as good as or better than all of the other scores at predicting conversion from MCI to AD. It was associated with all our selected imaging parameters for people with MCI and AD. Participants with MCI with an AD CSF signature had somewhat more rapid decline than did those without. This paper illustrates appropriate methods for addressing the different versions of word lists, and demonstrates the additional power to be gleaned with a psychometrically sound composite memory score.

Keywords

Memorypsychometricslongitudinal analysiscognitionhippocampus

Supplementary material

11682_2012_9186_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (33 kb)
Appendix Fig. 1Scatter plot of baseline memory single factor and bi-factor scores, stratified by diagnostic group (PDF 32 kb)
11682_2012_9186_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (46 kb)
Appendix Table 1Recoding of scores with more than 10 categories for ADNI-Mem. (PDF 46 kb)
11682_2012_9186_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (37 kb)
Appendix Table 2Factor loadings for the two versions of the RAVLT (PDF 37 kb)
11682_2012_9186_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (38 kb)
Appendix Table 3Factor loadings for the three versions of the ADAS-Cog (PDF 38 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul K. Crane
    • 1
  • Adam Carle
    • 2
  • Laura E. Gibbons
    • 1
  • Philip Insel
    • 3
  • R. Scott Mackin
    • 3
  • Alden Gross
    • 4
  • Richard N. Jones
    • 4
  • Shubhabrata Mukherjee
    • 1
  • S. McKay Curtis
    • 1
  • Danielle Harvey
    • 5
  • Michael Weiner
    • 3
  • Dan Mungas
    • 6
  • for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, and University of Cincinnati College of Arts and SciencesCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIND)San Francisco VA Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryInstitute for Aging ResearchBostonUSA
  5. 5.Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity of California at DavisDavisUSA
  6. 6.Department of NeurologyUniversity of California at DavisSacramentoUSA