Nano Express

Nanoscale Research Letters

, Volume 4, Issue 11, pp 1351-1357

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

The Effect of Single, Binary and Ternary Anions of Chloride, Carbonate and Phosphate on the Release of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate Intercalated into the Zn–Al-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrid

  • Mohd Zobir HusseinAffiliated withAdvanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia Email author 
  • , Adila Mohamad JaafarAffiliated withAdvanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • , Asmah Hj. YahayaAffiliated withCentre of Foundation Studies for Agricultural Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • , Zulkarnain ZainalAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia


Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic–inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) intercalated into the interlayer of Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN) have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis.


Layered double hydroxide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid Pseudo-second order kinetics Intercalation Controlled release