Nano Express

Nanoscale Research Letters

, Volume 4, Issue 8, pp 878-887

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Continuous and Localized Mn Implantation of ZnO

  • R. SanzAffiliated withInstituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) Email author 
  • , J. JensenAffiliated withThin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University
  • , G. González-DíazAffiliated withDepartamento de Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Universidad Complutense de Madrid
  • , O. MartínezAffiliated withOptronlab Group, Edificio I+D, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid
  • , M. VázquezAffiliated withInstituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC)
  • , M. Hernández-VélezAffiliated withInstituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC)Universidad Autónoma de Madrid


We present results derived from continuous and localized 35 keV 55Mn+ ion implantations into ZnO. Localized implantations were carried out by using self-ordered alumina membranes as masks leading to ordered arrays of implanted volumes on the substrate surfaces. Defects and vacancies in the small implantation volumes of ZnO were generated due to the implantation processes besides the creation of new phases. Rapid thermal annealing was applied in the case of continuous implantation. The samples were characterized by HRSEM, GIXRD, Raman spectroscopy and RBS/C. Magnetic characterization of the samples pointed out appreciable differences among the samples obtained by the different implantation methods. This fact was mainly attributed to the different volume/surface ratios present in the implanted zones as well as to the increase of Mn atom concentrations along the grain frontiers in the nanostructured surfaces. The samples also showed a ferromagnetic transition phase at temperature value higher than room temperature.


Ion implantation Nanoporous anodic alumina Magnetic semiconductors Magnetic properties ZnO