, 8:134

Bone mineral density, metabolic syndrome, and vitamin D in indigenous from south of Brazil

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Abstract

Summary

Bone mineral density (BMD), metabolic syndrome (MS), and vitamin D levels were evaluated in 73 indigenous from south of Brazil aged between 40 and 86 years. BMD loss in lumbar spine was detected in 63 %, MS was detected in 76.7 %, and vitamin D levels were altered in 67 % of subjects.

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate bone mineral density and its relationship with metabolic syndrome (MS) and vitamin D levels in indigenous from south of Brazil.

Methods

Transversal, descriptive, analytical study was developed in Nonoai City between October and December 2011. Seventy-three indigenous people aged between 40 and 86 years were enrolled. MS was defined according to NCEP-III. Serum levels of vitamin D and other parameters were quantified to define metabolic syndrome. Spine and femur bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral loss was classified using the World Health Organization criteria.

Results

Sixty-three percent of indigenous participants presented bone mineral loss in lumbar spine, and 19 % in femur. Overall frequency of MS was 76.7 % and more prevalent in females. Lower serum levels of vitamin D were observed in 67 % of the participants. Among the risk factors related to MS criteria, only the HDL levels were associated with bone mineral loss. Regarding nutritional habits, there were positive correlations between fat foods and meat intakes, MS, and low levels of vitamin D.

Conclusions

The elderly indigenous people present a high incidence of low bone mineral density, mainly in the lumbar spine, low levels of vitamin D, and a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Public health policy should also prioritize chronic degenerative diseases prevention and care for indigenous people. Healthier lifestyle in this population should be a focus for health promotion program by the governments.