Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 262–268

The Effect of Hospital Isolation Precautions on Patient Outcomes and Cost of Care: A Multi-Site, Retrospective, Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study

  • Kim Tran
  • Chaim Bell
  • Nathan Stall
  • George Tomlinson
  • Allison McGeer
  • Andrew Morris
  • Michael Gardam
  • Howard B. Abrams
Original Research

DOI: 10.1007/s11606-016-3862-4

Cite this article as:
Tran, K., Bell, C., Stall, N. et al. J GEN INTERN MED (2017) 32: 262. doi:10.1007/s11606-016-3862-4

Abstract

Background

Isolation precautions have negative effects on patient safety, psychological well-being, and healthcare worker contact. However, it is not known whether isolation precautions affect certain hospital-related outcomes.

Objective

To examine the effect of isolation precautions on hospital-related outcomes and cost of care.

Design

Retrospective, propensity-score matched cohort study of inpatients admitted to general internal medicine (GIM) services at three academic hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada between January 2010 and December 2012.

Participants

Adult (≥18 years of age) patients on isolation precautions for respiratory illnesses and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were matched to controls based on propensity scores derived from nine covariates: age, sex, Resource Intensity Weight, number of hospital readmissions within 90 days, total length of stay for hospital admissions within 90 days, site of admission, month of isolation, year of isolation, and Case Mix Group.

Main Measures

Thirty-day readmission rates and emergency department visits, hospital length of stay, expected length of stay, adverse events, in-hospital mortality, patient complaints, and cost of care in Canadian doll ars (CAD).

Key Results

A total of 17,649 non-isolated patients were admitted to the participating hospitals during the study period. We identified 1506 patients isolated for respiratory illnesses and 745 patients isolated for MRSA. Compared to non-isolated individuals, those on isolation precautions for respiratory illnesses stayed 17 % longer (95 % CI: 9 %, 25 %), stayed 9 % longer than expected (95 % CI: 3 %, 15 %), and had 23 % higher cost of care (95 % CI: 14 %, 32 %). Patients isolated for MRSA had similar outcomes, but they also had a 4.4 % higher (95 % CI: 1.4 %, 7.3 %) rate of readmission to hospital within 30 days.

Conclusions

Isolation precautions are associated with adverse effects which may result in poorer hospital outcomes. Balancing the benefits for the many with the harms to the few will be a future challenge.

KEY WORDS

Isolation Hospital Outcomes 

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim Tran
    • 1
  • Chaim Bell
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nathan Stall
    • 4
  • George Tomlinson
    • 5
    • 6
  • Allison McGeer
    • 7
    • 8
  • Andrew Morris
    • 9
    • 10
  • Michael Gardam
    • 10
    • 11
  • Howard B. Abrams
    • 1
    • 9
    • 12
    • 13
  1. 1.OpenLabUniversity Health NetworkTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Health Policy, Management and EvaluationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal MedicineMount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Core Internal MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Dalla Lana School of Public HealthUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Department of MedicineUniversity Health NetworkTorontoCanada
  7. 7.Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Medicine and Dalla Lana School of Public HealthUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  8. 8.Department of Microbiology, Division of Infection ControlMount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada
  9. 9.Department of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  10. 10.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity Health Network and Mount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada
  11. 11.Infectious Diseases and MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  12. 12.Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal MedicineUniversity Health Network and Mount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada
  13. 13.TorontoCanada