Article

Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 53, Issue 17, pp 2652-2658

Estimating divergence times among subfamilies in Nymphalidae

  • Min ZhangAffiliated withResearch Institute of Applied Biology and College of Life Science and Technology, Shanxi University
  • , TianWen CaoAffiliated withInstitute of Plant Protection, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Science
  • , Ke JinAffiliated withSchool of Life Sciences, Fudan University
  • , ZhuMei RenAffiliated withResearch Institute of Applied Biology and College of Life Science and Technology, Shanxi University
  • , YaPing GuoAffiliated withResearch Institute of Applied Biology and College of Life Science and Technology, Shanxi University
  • , Jing ShiAffiliated withSchool of Life Sciences, Fudan University
  • , Yang ZhongAffiliated withSchool of Life Sciences, Fudan UniversityShanghai Center for Bioinformation Technology Email author 
  • , EnBo MaAffiliated withResearch Institute of Applied Biology and College of Life Science and Technology, Shanxi University Email author 

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Abstract

The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) gene were sequenced from 13 species of Nymphalidae. Phylogenetic trees of Nymphalidae, which is the largest family in butterflies, were constructed based on the sequences determined from 13 species sequenced in our laboratory and an additional 43 species obtained from GenBank using the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods. Relative-rate tests between lineages in these phylogenetic trees were performed. On the basis of the results of the relative-rate tests and fossil information of Satyrinae, Nymphalinae and Biblidinae, the average divergence times among the subfamilies are estimated as 44.2–87.1 million years ago (Ma). These results will be helpful for better understanding of the origin and evolution of this family, as well as the divergence time of butterflies and other complex taxa.

Keywords

Nymphalidae phylogenetic analysis divergence time COI EF-1α