Aimeur, E., & Frasson, C. (1996). Analyzing a new learning strategy according to different knowledge levels. Computers & Education, 27
Aleven, V., Stahl, E., Schworm, S., Fischer, F., & Wallace, R. (2003). Help seeking and help design in interactive learning environments. Review of Educational Research, 73(3), 277–320.
Anderson, J. R., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R., & PeUetier, K. (1995). Cognitive tutors: Lessons learned. The Journal of the Learning Science, 4
Arnone, M. P., Grabowski, B. L., & Rynd, C. P. (1994). Curiosity as a personality variable influencing learning in a learner controlled lesson with and without advisement. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42
Asher, S. R., Parker, J. G., & Walker, D. L. (1996). Distinguishing friendship from acceptance: Implications for intervention and assessment. In W. M. Bukowski, A. New-comb & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 366–406). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Atkinson, R. K. (2002). Optimizing learning from examples using animated pedagogical agents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94
Bailenson, J. N., & Yee, N. (in press). Digital chameleons: Automatic assimilation of nonverbal gestures in immersive virtual environments. Psychological Science.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. Engle-wood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106(4)
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52
Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51
Bates, J. (1994). The role of emotion in believable agents. Communications of the ACM, 37
Baylor, A. L., & Kim, Y. (2003). Validating pedagogical agent roles: Expert, motivator, and mentor. Paper presented at the International Conference of Ed-Media, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Baylor, A. L., & Kim, Y. (2004). Pedagogical agent design: The impact of agent realism, gender, ethnicity, and instructional role. Paper presented at the Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceio, Alagoas, Brazil.
Baylor, A. L., & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15, 95–115.
Baylor, A. L., & Plant, A. (2005). Pedagogical agents as social models for engineering: The influence of agent appearance on female choice. Unpublished manuscript.
Bickhard, M. H. (2004). The social ontology of persons. In J. I. M. Carpendale & U. Muller (Eds.), Social interaction and the development of knowledge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Biswas, G., Schwartz, D., & Bransford, J. (2001). Technology support for complex problem solving: From sad environments to AI. In K. D. Forbus & P. J. Feltovich (Eds.), Smart machines in education (pp. 71–97). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A., Swinth, K., Hoyt, C., & Bailenson, J. N. (2002). Immersive virtual environment technology as a methodological tool for social psychology. Psychological Inquiry, 13
Bloom, B. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13
Bower, G. H., & Forgas, J. P. (2001). Mood and social memory. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Handbook of affect and social cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Brophy, S., Biswas, G., Katzlberger, T., Bransford, J., & Schwartz, D. (1999). Teachable agents: Combining insights from learning theory and computer science. Paper presented at the AI-ED 99, LeMans, France.
Burleson, W., Picard, R. W., Perlin, K., & Lippincott, J. (2004). A platform for affective agent research. Paper presented at the Workshop on Empathetic Agents, International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Carli, L. L. (2001). Gender and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 57
Carpendale, J. I. M., & Muller, U. (Eds.). (2004). Social interaction and the development of knowledge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Chan, T. W. (1996). Learning companion systems, social learning systems, and the global social learning club. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 7(2), 125–159.
Chan, T. W., & Baskin, A. B. (1990). Learning companion systems. In C. Frasson & G. Gauthier (Eds.), Intelligent tutoring systems at the crossroads of artificial intelligence and education, (pp. 7–33): NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Chan, T. W., & Chou, C. Y. (1997). Exploring the design of computer supports for reciprocal tutoring systems. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 8, 1–29.
Chiplin-Williams, G. J. (1997). Effects of peer-mediated versus adult-mediated intervention on learning community and domestic skills. Unpublished dissertation. Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Cooper, J., & Weaver, K. D. (2003). Gender and computers: Understanding the digital divide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Craig, S. D., Gholson, B., Ventura, M., Graesser, A. C., & Group, T. R. (2000). Listening in on dialogues and monologues in a virtual tutoring session: Learning and questioning. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 11, 242–253.
Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putnam.
Dautenhahn, K., Bond, A. H., Canamero, L., & Edmonds, B. (Eds.). (2002). Socially intelligent agents: Creating relationships with computers and robots. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Denham, S. A., & Kochanoff, A. (2002). “Why is she crying?” Children’s understanding of emotion from preschool to preadolescence. In The wisdom in feeling (pp. 239–270). New York: The Guilford Press.
Dillenbourg, P., Mendelsohn, P., & Schneider, D. (1994). The distribution of pedagogical roles in a multiagent learning environment. In R. Lewis & P. Mendelsohn (Eds.), Lessons from learning (pp. 199–216): Elsevier.
Dillenbourg, P., & Self, J. (1992). People power: A human-computer collaborative learning system. In G. G. C. Frasson, & G. McCalla (Ed.), The 2nd international conference of intelligent tutoring systems, lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 608, pp. 651–660). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Elliott, C., Rickel, J. W., & Lester, J. C. (1999). Lifelike pedagogical agents and affective computing: An exploratory synthesis. In M. W. M. Veloso (Ed.), Lecture notes in artificial intelligence (Vol. 1600, pp. 195–212). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Ellis, H. C., Ottaway, S. A., Varner, L. J., Becker, A. S., & Moore, B. A. (1997). Emotion, motivation, and text comprehension: The detection of contradictions in passages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 126(2), 131–146.
Erickson, T. (1997). Designing agents as if people mattered. In J. M. Bradshaw (Ed.), Software agents (pp. 79–96). Menlo Park, CA: MIT Press.
Forgas, J. P. (Ed.). (2001). Handbook of affect and social cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Gartner, A., Kohler, M., & Riessman, F. (1971). Children teach children: Learning by teaching. New York and London: Harper and Row.
Gertner, A. S., & VanLehn, K. (2000). Andes: A coached problem solving environment for physics. Paper presented at the ITS 2000, Montreal, Canada.
Goodlad, S., & Hirst, B. (1989). Peer tutoring: A guide to learning by teaching. London: Kogan Page.
Goodman, B., Seller, A., Linton, F., & Gaimari, R. (1998). Encouraging student reflection and articulation using a learning companion. Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Kobe, Japan.
Graesser, A. C., Moreno, K. N., & Marineau, J. C. (2003). Autotutor improves deep learning of computer literacy: Is it the dialogue or the talking head ? Paper presented at the The International Conference of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Sydney, Australia.
Graesser, A. C., VanLehn, K., Rose, C., Jordan, P., & Harter, D. (2001). Intelligent tutoring systems with conversational dialogue. AI Magazine, 22, 39–51.
Greenfield, P. M. (1984). A theory of the teacher in the learning activities of everyday life. In B. Rogoff & J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Griffin, M. M., & Griffin, B. W. (1998). An investigation of the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on achievement, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23(3), 298–311.
Hays-Roth, B., & Doyle, P. (1998). Animate characters. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 1
Hewitt, I., & Scardamalia, M. (1998). Design principles for distributed knowledge building processes. Educational Psychology Review, 10(1), 75–96.
Hietala, P., & Niemirepo, T. (1998a). The competence of learning companion agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 9, 178–192.
Hietala, P., & Niemirepo, T. (1998b). Multiple artificial teachers: How do learners cope with a multi-agent learning environment? Paper presented at the Workshop Proceedings on Current Trends and Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Education at the 4th World Congress on Expert Systems, Mexico City, Mexico.
Hudlicka, E. (2003). To feel or not to feel: The role of affect in human-computer interaction. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 59, 1–32.
Johnson, W. L., Rickel, J. W., & Lester, J. C. (2000). Animated pedagogical agents: Face-to-face interaction in interactive learning environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 11, 47–78.
Kearsley, G. (1993). Intelligent agents and instructional systems: Implications of a new paradigm. Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education, 4(4), 295–304.
Kim, Y. (2003a). The effects of competency and type of interaction of agent learning companion on agent value, motivation, and learning. Paper presented at the Ed-Media, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Kim, Y. (2003b). Pedagogical agent as learning companion: Its constituents and implications. Paper presented at the E-Learn, the Annual Conference of Association for the Advancement of computing in Education, Phoenix, AZ.
Kim, Y. (2004). Pedagogical agents as learning companions: The effects of agent affect and gender on learning, interest, self-efficacy, and agent persona. Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.
Kim, Y. (2005a). Learning companions as change agents: Improving girls’ self-efficacy beliefs in learning math: NSF #051503.
Kim, Y. (2005b). Pedagogical agents as learning companions: Building social relations with learners. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Kim, Y., & Baylor, A. L. (2005a). The impact of affective expression and gender of a learning companion. Paper presented at the Annual Conference in American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.
Kim, Y., & Baylor, A. L. (2005b). Pedagogical agents as learning companions: Building empa-thetic relationships with learners. Paper presented at the Annual Conference in American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.
Kim, Y., & Baylor, A. L. (2006). Pedagogical agents as learning companions: The role of agent competency and type of interaction. Educational Technology Research & Development, 54(03).
King, A. (1998). Transactive peer tutoring: Distributing cognition and metacognition. Educational Psychology Review, 10
Koda, T., & Maes, P. (1996). Agents with faces: The effect of personification. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication, Tsukuba, Japan.
Koedinger, K. R., & Anderson, J. R. (1997). Intelligent tutoring goes to school in the big city. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 8, 30–43.
Kort, B., Reilly, R., & Picard, R. W. (2001). An affective model of interplay between emotions and learning: Reengineering educational pedagogy-building a learning companion. Paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.
Large, A. (1996). Hypertext instructional programs and learner control: A research review. Education forInformation, 14(2), 95–107.
Laurel, B. (1990). Interface agents: Metaphors with character. In B. Laurel (Ed.), The art of human-computer interface design (pp. 355–365). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (2001). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, E., & Nass, C. (1998). Does the ethnicity of a computer agent matter? An experimental comparison of human-computer interaction and computer-mediated communication. Paper presented at the WECC Conference, Lake Tahoe, CA.
Lester, J. C., Converse, S. A., Kahler, S. E., Barlow, S. T., Stone, B. A., & Bhoga, R. S. (1997). The persona effect: Affective impact of animated pedagogical agents. Paper presented at the CHI’97 Human Factors in Computing Systems., Atlanta, GA.
Littleton, K., Light, P., Joiner, R., Messer, D., & Barnes, P. (1998). Gender, task scenarios and children’s computer-based problem solving. Educational Psychology, 18, 327–340.
Matusov, E., & Hayes, R. (2000). Sociocultural critique of Piaget and Vygotsky. New Ideas in Psychology, 18
Mayer, R. E., Johnson, L., Shaw, E., & Sandhu, S. (2005). Constructing computer-based tutors that are socially sensitive: Politeness in educational software. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.
Meyer, D. K., & Turner, J. C. (2002). Discovering emotion in classroom motivation research. Educational Psychologist, 37
Moreno, K. N., Person, N. K., Adcock, A. B., Eck, R. N. V., Jackson, G. T., & Marineau, J. C. (2002). Etiquette and efficacy in animated pedagogical agents: The role of stereotypes. Paper presented at the AAAI Symposium on Personalized Agents, Cape Cod, MA.
Moreno, R., Mayer, R. E., Spires, H. A., & Lester, J. C. (2001). The case for social agency in computer-based teaching: Do students learn more deeply when they interact with animated pedagogical agents? Cognition and Instruction, 19
Mulken,S. V., Andre, E.,&Muller,J. (1998). The persona effect: How substantial is it? Paper presented at the HCI-98, Berlin.
Okonkwo, C. (2003). Affective pedagogical agents and user persuasion.
Palincsar, A., & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117–175.
Palthepu, S., Greer, J., & McCalla, G. (1991). Learning by teaching. Paper presented at the International Conference on the Learning Sciences.
Pea, R. (2001). Practices of distributed intelligence and designs for education. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognition: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 47–87). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Perkins, D. N. (2001). Person-plus: A distributed view of thinking and learning. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognition: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 88–110): Cambridge University Press.
Piaget, L. (1995). Sociological studies (I. Smith, Trans. 2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Picard, R. W. (1997). Affective computing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Powell, J. V., Aeby, V. G., & Carpenter-Aeby, T. (2003). A comparison of student outcomes with and without teacher facilitated computer-based instruction. Computers & Education, 40
Reeves, B., & Nass, C. (1996). The media equation: How people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ross, S. M., Morrison, G. R., & O’dell, J. (1989). Uses and effects of learner control of intent and instructional support in computer-based instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 37
Rowell, P. M. (2002). Peer interactions in shared technological activity: A study of participation. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 12
Ruttkay, Z., & Pelachaud, C. (Eds.). (2004). From brows to trust: Evaluating embodied conversational agents: Springer.
Ryokai, K., Vaucelle, C., & Cassell, J. (2003). Virtual peers as partners in storytelling and literacy learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(2)
Saarni, C. (2001). Emotion communication and relationship context. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25
Salomon, G. (1988). AI in reverse: Computer tools that turn cognitive. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 4
Salomon, G. (1989). The computer as a zone of proximal development: Internalizing reading-related metacognitions from a reading partner. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(4)
Salomon, G. (1990). Cognitive effects with and of computer technology. Communication Research, 17(1), 26–44.
Salomon, G. (2001). Distributed cognition: Psychological and educational considerations. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Salomon, G., & Almog, T. (1998). Educational psychology and technology: A matter of reciprocal relations. Teachers College Record, 100(2), 222–241.
Scheirer, J., Fernandez, R., Klein, J., & Picard, R. W. (2002). Frustrating the user on purpose: A step toward building an affective computer. Interacting with Computers, 14(2), 93–118.
Schunk, D. H. (1987). Peer models and children’s behavioral change. Review of Educational Research, 57(2)
Schunk, D. H., & Lilly, M. W. (1984). Sex differences in self-efficacy and attributions: Influence of performance feedback. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4, 203–213.
Suzuki, N., Takechi, Y., Ishii, K., & Okada, M. (2003). Effects of echoic mimicry using hummed sounds on human/computer interaction. Speech Communication, 40, 559–573
Takeuchi, A., & Naito, T. (1995). Situated facial displays: Towards social interaction. Paper presented at the Conference of Human Factors in Computer System (CHI–95), Denver, CO.
Topping, K., Hill, S., McKaig, A., Rogers, C, Rushi, N., & Young, D. (1997). Paired reciprocal peer tutoring in undergraduate economics. Innovations in Education and Training International, 34(2), 96–113.
Tudge, J. R. H., & Winterhoff, P. A. (1993). Vygotsky, Piaget, and Bandura: Perspectives on the relations between the social world and cognitive development. Human Development, 36
Tudge, J. R. H., Winterhoff, P. A., & Hogan, D. M. (1996). The cognitive consequences of collaborative problem solving with and without feedback. Child Development, 67
Ur, S., & VanLehn, K. (1995). Steps: A simulated, tutorable physics student. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 6(4), 405–435.
Uresti, R. J. (2000). Should I teach my computer peer? Some issues in teaching a learning companion. Paper presented at the Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000, Montreal, Canada.
Uresti, R. J., & Boulay, B. D. (2004). Expertise, motivation and teaching in learning companion systems. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 14, 193–231.
Vygotsky, L. S., Cole, M., John-Steiner, V., Scribner, S., & Souberman, E. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walker, J. H., Sproull, L., & Subramani, R. (1994). Using a human face in an interface. Paper presented at the Human Factors in Computing Systems, Boston, Massachusetts.
Wertsch, J. V., Minick, N., & Arns, F. J. (1984). The creation of context in joint problem-solving. In B. Rogoff & J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition (pp. 151–171). Bridgewater, NJ: Replica Books.
White, B. Y., Shimoda, T. A., & Frederiksen, J. R. (2000). Facilitating students’ inquiry learning and metacognitive development through modifiable software advisers. In S. P. Lajoie (Ed.), Computers as cognitive tools: No more walls (Vol. 2, pp. 97–132). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Yarrow, F., & Topping, K. (2001). Collaborative writing: The effects of metacognitive prompting and structured peer interaction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71