A Spectral Analysis of Rotator Cuff Musculature Electromyographic Activity: Surface and Indwelling
First Online: 13 August 2010 Received: 14 August 2009 Accepted: 22 June 2010 DOI:
Cite this article as: Backus, S.I., Tomlinson, D.P., Vanadurongwan, B. et al. HSS Jrnl (2011) 7: 21. doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9178-8 Abstract
Electromyography (EMG) of the shoulder girdle is commonly performed; however, EMG spectral properties of shoulder muscles have not been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum power frequency, Nyquist rate, and minimum sampling rate for indwelling and surface EMG of the normal shoulder girdle musculature. EMG signals were recorded using indwelling electrodes for the rotator cuff muscles and surface electrodes for ten additional shoulder muscles in ten healthy volunteers. A fast Fourier transform was performed on the raw EMG signal collected during maximal isometric contractions to derive the power spectral density. The 95% power frequency was calculated during the ramp and plateau subphase of each contraction. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired
t tests. Indwelling EMG signals had more than twice the frequency content of surface EMG signals ( p < .001). Mean 95% power frequencies ranged from 495 to 560 Hz for indwelling electrodes and from 152 to 260 Hz for surface electrodes. Significant differences in the mean 95% power frequencies existed among muscles monitored with surface electrodes ( p = .002), but not among muscles monitored with indwelling electrodes ( p = .961). No significant differences in the 95% power frequencies existed among contraction subphases for any of the muscle–electrode combinations. Maximum Nyquist rate was 893 Hz for surface electrodes and 1,764 Hz for indwelling electrodes. Our results suggest that when recording EMG of shoulder muscles, the minimum sampling frequency is 1,340 Hz for surface electrodes and 2,650 Hz for indwelling electrodes. The minimum sampling recommendations are higher than the 1,000 Hz reported in many studies involving EMG of the shoulder. Keywords shoulder rotator cuff electromyography isometric contraction Financial Disclosure: Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article. Ethical Review: Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the human protocol for this investigation, that all investigations were conducted in conformity with ethical principles of research, and that informed consent for participation in the study was obtained.
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