Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 162–171

Freely dissolved PCDD/F concentrations in the Frierfjord, Norway: comparing equilibrium passive sampling with “active” water sampling

SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IN NORWAY • RESEARCH ARTICLE

DOI: 10.1007/s11368-009-0152-3

Cite this article as:
Cornelissen, G., Broman, D. & Næs, K. J Soils Sediments (2010) 10: 162. doi:10.1007/s11368-009-0152-3

Abstract

Introduction

Equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 55-µm polyoxymethylene (POM) and 170-µm polydimethylsiloxane were tested for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furan (PCDD/F) in the pore water and overlying water of the Frierfjord, a bay in southern Norway. This fjord is heavily polluted with PCDD/Fs due to emissions from a former Mg smelter.

Results and Discussion

Field exposures of both equilibrium passive sampler types yielded similar results for freely dissolved PCDD/F concentrations (CW,free) in the overlying water. In addition, the passive sampling data deviated less than an order of magnitude from CW,free obtained with conventional “active” sampling through pumping/filtration over glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam. A similar comparison was done for the pore water, where POM passive samplers also proved to yield freely dissolved pore water concentrations (CPW,free) that deviated less than an order of magnitude from earlier published values measured by direct pore water extraction. The data were also used to derive sediment–water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. High sediment-to-water activity ratios (median value of 160 for 17 congeners) indicated a strong diffusion gradient between the sediment pore water and the overlying water, probably due to deposition of particle-bound PCDD/Fs in combination with low sedimentation rates.

Keywords

PCDD/FFrierfjordEquilibrium passive samplingFree concentrations

Abbreviations

AOC

Amorphous organic carbon

CPW,free

Freely dissolved pore water concentration

CW,free

Freely dissolved fjord water concentration

DOC

Dissolved organic carbon

GFF

Glass fiber filters

K

Solid–water distribution ratio

PCDD/F

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furan

POM

Polyoxymethylene (passive sampler)

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane (passive sampler)

PUF

Polyurethane foam

TOC

Total organic carbon

WHO-TEQ

World Health Organization toxic equivalents

Supplementary material

11368_2009_152_MOESM1_ESM.doc (148 kb)
ESM1(DOC 151 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerard Cornelissen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Dag Broman
    • 3
  • Kristoffer Næs
    • 2
  1. 1.Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)OsloNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)OsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM)Stockholm UniversityStockholmSweden