Sleep and Breathing

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 561–568

Missing teeth and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea

  • Christian Guilleminault
  • Vivien C Abad
  • Hsiao-Yean Chiu
  • Brandon Peters
  • Stacey Quo
Sleep Breathing Physiology and Disorders • Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11325-015-1238-3

Cite this article as:
Guilleminault, C., Abad, V.C., Chiu, HY. et al. Sleep Breath (2016) 20: 561. doi:10.1007/s11325-015-1238-3

Abstract

Background

Missing teeth in early childhood can result in abnormal facial morphology with narrow upper airway. The potential association between dental agenesis or early dental extractions and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was investigated.

Methods

We reviewed clinical data, results of polysomnographic sleep studies, and orthodontic imaging studies of children with dental agenesis (n = 32) or early extraction of permanent teeth (n = 11) seen during the past 5 years and compared their findings to those of age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched children with normal teeth development but tonsilloadenoid (T&A) hypertrophy and symptoms of OSA (n = 64).

Results

The 31 children with dental agenesis and 11 children with early dental extractions had at least 2 permanent teeth missing. All children with missing teeth (n = 43) had clinical complaints and signs evoking OSA. There was a significant difference in mean apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) in the three dental agenesis, dental extraction, and T&A studied groups (p < 0.001), with mean abnormal AHI lowest in the pediatric dental agenesis group. In the children with missing teeth (n = 43), aging was associated with the presence of a higher AHI (R2 = 0.71, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion

Alveolar bone growth is dependent on the presence of the teeth that it supports. The dental agenesis in the studied children was not part of a syndrome and was an isolated finding. Our children with permanent teeth missing due to congenital agenesis or permanent teeth extraction had a smaller oral cavity, known to predispose to the collapse of the upper airway during sleep, and presented with OSA recognized at a later age. Due to the low-grade initial symptomatology, sleep-disordered breathing may be left untreated for a prolonged period with progressive worsening of symptoms over time.

Keywords

Obstructive sleep apnea Upper airway collapsibility Alveolo-dental growth Dental agenesis Oral-facial development 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Guilleminault
    • 1
  • Vivien C Abad
    • 1
  • Hsiao-Yean Chiu
    • 1
  • Brandon Peters
    • 1
  • Stacey Quo
    • 2
  1. 1.Stanford University Sleep Medicine DivisionStanford Outpatient Medical CenterRedwood CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of OrthodonticsUniversity of California San Francisco Dental SchoolSan FranciscoUSA