Metabolomics: building on a century of biochemistry to guide human health
Received: 11 August 2004 Accepted: 17 September 2004 DOI:
Cite this article as: German, J.B., Hammock, B.D. & Watkins, S.M. Metabolomics (2005) 1: 3. doi:10.1007/s11306-005-1102-8 Abstract
Medical diagnosis and treatment efficacy will improve significantly when a more personalized system for health assessment is implemented. This system will require diagnostics that provide sufficiently detailed information about the metabolic status of individuals such that assay results will be able to guide food, drug and lifestyle choices to maintain or improve distinct aspects of health without compromising others. Achieving this goal will use the new science of metabolomics – comprehensive metabolic profiling of individuals linked to the biological understanding of human integrative metabolism. Candidate technologies to accomplish this goal are largely available, yet they have not been brought into practice for this purpose. Metabolomic technologies must be sufficiently rapid, accurate and affordable to be routinely accessible to both healthy and acutely ill individuals. The use of metabolomic data to predict the health trajectories of individuals will require bioinformatic tools and quantitative reference databases. These databases containing metabolite profiles from the population must be built, stored and indexed according to metabolic and health status. Building and annotating these databases with the knowledge to predict how a specific metabolic pattern from an individual can be adjusted with diet, drugs and lifestyle to improve health represents a logical application of the biochemistry knowledge that the life sciences have produced over the past 100 years.
Key words metabolomics metabolic profiling human health References Alberti, G. 2001 Noncommunicable diseases: tomorrow’s pandemics Bull. World Health Organ. 79 907 Google Scholar Brindle, J.T., Antti, H., Holmes, E., et al. 2002 Rapid and noninvasive diagnosis of the presence and severity of coronary heart disease using 1H-NMR-based metabonomics Nat. Med. 8 1439 1444 Google Scholar Bruckert, E., Giral, P., Tellier, P. 2003 Microarray analysis reveals a major direct role of DNA copy number alteration in the transcriptional program of human breast tumors Circulation 107 3124 3128 Google Scholar Carpenter, K.J. 2003a A short history of nutritional science: part 3 (1912–1944) J. Nutr. 133 3023 3032 Google Scholar Carpenter, K.J. 2003b A short history of nutritional science: part 4 (1945–1985) J. Nutr. 133 3331 3342 Google Scholar Castrillo, J.I., Hayes, A., Mohammed, S., Gaskell, S.J., Oliver, S.G. 2003 An optimized protocol for metabolome analysis in yeast using direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry Phytochemistry 62 929 937 Google Scholar Collins, F.S., Green, E.D., Guttmacher, A.E., Guyer, M.S. 2003 Nature 422 835 847 Google Scholar Fiehn, O. 2003 Metabolic networks of Cucurbita maxima phloem Phytochemistry 62 875 886 Google Scholar Grundy, S.M. 2002 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-The National Cholesterol Guidelines in 2001, Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III. Approach to lipoprotein management in 2001 National Cholesterol Guidelines Am. J. Cardiol. 90 11i 21i Google Scholar Hood, L. 2003 Systems biology: integrating technology, biology, and computation Mech. Ageing Dev. 124 9 16 Google Scholar Lamers, R.J., DeGroot, J., Spies-Faber, E.J., et al. 2003 Identification of disease- and nutrient-related metabolic fingerprints in osteoarthritic Guinea pigs J. Nutr. 133 1776 1780 Google Scholar Lutjohann, D., Bjorkhem, I., Beil, U.F., von Bergmann, K. 1995 Sterol absorption and sterol balance in phytosterolemia evaluated by deuterium-labeled sterols: effect of sitostanol treatment J. Lipid Res. 36 1763 1773 Google Scholar Marcus, A.J., Broekman, M.J., Pinsky, D.J. 2002 COX inhibitors and thromboregulation New Engl. J. Med. 347 1025 1026 Google Scholar Mussner, M.J., Parhofer, K.G., Von Bergmann, K., Schwandt, P., Broedl, U., Otto, C. 2002 Effects of phytosterol ester-enriched margarine on plasma lipoproteins in mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia are related to basal cholesterol and fat intake Metabolism 51 189 194 Google Scholar Newman, J.W., Watanabe, T., Hammock, B.D. 2002 The simultaneous quantification of cytochrome P450 dependent linoleate and arachidonate metabolites in urine by HPLC-MS/MS J. Lipid Res. 43 1563 1578 Google Scholar Nicholson, J.K., Wilson, I.D. 2003 Opinion: understanding ‘global’ systems biology: metabonomics and the continuum of metabolism Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2 668 676 Google Scholar Nicholson, J.K., Lindon, J.C., Holmes, E. 1999 Metabonomics’: understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data Xenobiotica 29 1181 1189 Google Scholar Ohlmeier, S., Kastaniotis, A.J., Hiltunen, J.K., Bergmann, U. 2004 The yeast mitochondrial proteome, a study of fermentative and respiratory growth J. Biol. Chem. 279 3956 3979 Google Scholar Pollack, J.R., Sorlie, T., Perou, C.M., et al. 2002 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 12963 12968 Google Scholar Puska, P. 2002 Nutrition and global prevention on non-communicable diseases Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 11 S755 S758 Google Scholar Shoda, J., Miyamoto, J., Kano, M., et al. 1997 Simultaneous determination of plasma mevalonate and 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels in hyperlipoproteinemia: convenient indices for estimating hepatic defects of cholesterol and bile acid syntheses and biliary cholesterol supersaturation Hepatology 25 18 26 Google Scholar Soga, T., Ohashi, Y., Ueno, Y., Naraoka, H., Tomita, M., Nishioka, T. 2003 Quantitative metabolome analysis using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry J. Proteome Res. 2 488 494 Google Scholar Watkins, S.M., Reifsnyder, P.R., Pan, H.J., German, J.B., Leiter, E.H. 2002 Lipid metabolome-wide effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g agonist rosiglitazone J. Lipid Res. 43 1809 1817 Google Scholar Watkins, S.M., Zhu, X., Zeisel, S.H. 2003 J. Nutr. 133 3386 3391 Google Scholar Weckwerth, W. 2003 Metabolomics in systems biology Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54 669 689 Google Scholar Yoshida, T., Honda, A., Tanaka, N., et al. 1993 Simultaneous determination of mevalonate and 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as indices of cholesterol and bile acid biosynthesis J. Chromatogr. 14 185 193 Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005