A multi-site, randomized study of strengths-based case management with substance-abusing parolees
To test whether strengths-based case management provided during an inmate’s transition from incarceration to the community increases participation in community substance abuse treatment, enhances access to needed social services, and improves drug use, crime, and HIV risk outcomes.
In a multi-site trial, inmates (men and women) in four states (n = 812) were randomly assigned (within site) to receive either Transitional Case Management (TCM group), based on strengths-based principles, or standard parole services (SR group). Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 9 months following release from prison. Analyses compared the two groups with respect to services received and to drug use, crime, and HIV risk behavior outcomes.
There were no significant differences between parolees in the TCM group and the SR group on outcomes related to participation in drug abuse treatment, receipt of social services, or drug use, crime, and HIV risk behaviors. For specific services (e.g., residential treatment, mental health), although significant differences were found for length of participation or for number of visits, the number of participants in these services was small and the direction of effect was not consistent.
In contrast to positive findings in earlier studies of strengths-based case management with mental-health and drug-abuse clients, this study found that case management did not improve treatment participation or behavioral outcomes for parolees with drug problems. The discussion includes possible reasons for the findings and suggestions for modifications to the intervention that could be addressed in future research.
- Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Carroll, K. M., Easton, C. J., Nich, C., Hunkele, K. A., Neavins, T. M., Sinha, R., et al. (2006). The use of contingency management and motivational/skills-building therapy to treat young adults with marijuana dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 955–966. CrossRef
- Coviello, D. M., Zanis, D. A., Wesnoski, S. A., & Alterman, A. I. (2006). The effectiveness of outreach case management in re-enrolling discharged methadone patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 85(1), 56–65. CrossRef
- de Shazer, S. (1988). Clues: Investigating solutions in brief therapy. New York: W.W. Norton.
- Frangakis, C. E., & Rubin, D. B. (2002). Principal stratification in causal inference. Biometrics, 58, 21–29. CrossRef
- Gingerich, W. J., & Eisengart, S. (2000). Solution-focused brief therapy: A review of the outcome research. Family Process, 39(4), 477–498. CrossRef
- Hall, J., Vaughan-Sarrazin, M., Vaughn, T., Block, R., & Schut, A. (1999). Iowa case management for rural drug abuse: Preliminary results. Journal of Case Management, 1(4), 232–243.
- Hall, J., Carswell, C., Walsh, E., Huber, D., & Jampoler, J. (2002). Iowa case management: Innovative social casework. Social Work, 47(2), 132–141.
- Hall, E. A., Zuniga, R., Cartier, J., Anglin, M. D., Danila, B., Ryan, T., et al. (2003). Staying in touch: A fieldwork manual of tracking procedures for locating substance abusers for follow-up studies (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs.
- Hall, E., Prendergast, M., Wellisch, J., Patten, M., & Cao, Y. (2004). Treating drug-abusing women prisoners: An outcomes evaluation of the Forever Free Program. Prison Journal, 84(1), 81–105. CrossRef
- Hammett, T. M., Roberts, C., & Kennedy, S. (2001). Health-related issues in prisoner reentry. Crime & Delinquency, 47(3), 390–409. CrossRef
- Hedden, S., Woolson, R. F., & Malcolm, R. J. (2006). Randomization in substance abuse clinical trials. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 1(6).
- Hedeker, D., Gibbons, R. D., Waternaux, C., & Davis, J. M. (1989). Investigating drug plasma levels and clinical response using random regression models. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 25(2), 227–231.
- Helmus, T. C., Saules, K. K., Schoener, E. P., & Roll, J. M. (2003). Reinforcement of counseling attendance and alcohol abstinence in a community-based dual-diagnosis treatment program: A feasibility study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17(3), 249–251. CrossRef
- Hesse, M., Vanderplasschen,W., Rapp, R. C., Broekaert, E., & Fridell, M. (2007). Case management for persons with substance use disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006265.
- Hubbard, R. L., Marsden, M. E., Rachal, J. V., Harwood, H. J., Cavanaugh, E. R., & Ginzburg, H. M. (1989). Drug abuse treatment: A national study of effectiveness. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
- Kerson, T. S. (2001). Boundary spanning: An ecological reinterpretation of social work practice in health and mental health systems. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Kisthardt, W. E. (2002). The strengths perspective in interpersonal helping: Purpose, principles, and functions. In D. Saleeby (Ed.), The strengths perspective in social work practice (pp. 163–185). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Knight, K., Simpson, D.D., & Hiller, M.L., (1999). Three-year reincarceration outcomes for in-prison therapeutic community treatment in Texas. The Prison Journal, 79, 337–351.
- Lambert, D. (1992). Zero-inflated Poisson regression, with application to defects in manufacturing. Technometrics, 34, 1–14. CrossRef
- Little, R., & Yau, L. (1998). Statistical techniques for analyzing data from prevention trials: Treatment of no-shows using Rubin's causal model. Psychological Methods, 3(2), 147–159. CrossRef
- Martin, S., & Inciardi, J. (1993). Case management approaches for the criminal justice client. In J. Inciardi (Ed.), Drug treatment and criminal justice (pp. 84–86). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Martin, S., Isenberg, H., & Inciardi, J. (1993). Assertive community treatment: Integrating intensive drug treatment with aggressive case management for hard to reach populations. In J. Inciardi, F. Tims, & B. Fletcher (Eds.), Innovative approaches in the treatment of drug abuse: Program models and strategies (pp. 87–96). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
- Martin, S. S., Butzin, C. A., Saum, C. A., & Inciardi, J. A. (1999). Three-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment for drug-involved offenders in Delaware: From prison to work release to aftercare. Prison Journal, 79(3), 294–320. CrossRef
- Marty, D., Rapp, C. A., & Carlson, L. (2001). The experts speak: The critical ingredients of strengths model case management. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 24(3), 214–221.
- Mejta, C., Bokos, P., Mickenberg, J., Maslar, M., & Senay, E. (1997). Improving substance abuse treatment access and retention using a case management approach. Journal of Drug Issues, 27(2), 329–340.
- Miller, S. D., Hubble, M. A., & Duncan, B. L. (1996). Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Neale, M. S., & Rosenheck, R. A. (1995). Therapeutic alliance and outcome in a VA intensive case management program. Psychiatric Services, 46(7), 719–723.
- Peters, R. H., Greenbaum, P. E., Steinberg, M. L., Carter, C. R., Ortiz, M. M., Fry, B. C., et al. (2000). Effectiveness of screening instruments in detecting substance use disorders among prisoners. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 18(4), 349–358. CrossRef
- Prendergast, M. (2009). Interventions to encourage successful re-entry among drug-abusing parolees. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 5(1), 4–13. CrossRef
- Prendergast, M., & Cartier, J. (2008). Improving parolees’ participation in drug treatment and other services through strengths case management. Perspectives: Journal of the American Probation and Parole Association, 32(1), 38–46.
- Prendergast, M., Greenwell, L., Cartier, L., Sacks, J., Frisman, J., Rodis, E., et al. (2009). Adherence to scheduled sessions in a randomized field trial of case management: The CJ-DATS Transitional Case Management Study. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 5, 273–279. CrossRef
- Rapp, C. A. (1992). The strengths model: Case management with people suffering from severe and persistent mental illness. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Rapp, C., & Wintersteen, R. (1989). The strengths model of case management: Results from twelve demonstrations. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 13(1), 23–32.
- Rapp, R. C., Otto, A. L., Lane, D. T., Redko, C., McGatha, S., & Carlson, R. G. (2008). Improving linkage with substance abuse treatment using brief case management and motivational interviewing. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 94(1–3), 172–182. CrossRef
- Ridgely, M., & Willenbring, M. (1992). Application of case management to drug abuse treatment: Overview of models and research issues. In R. Ashery (Ed.), Progress and issues in case management (NIDA technical review on case management). Rockville: National Institute on Drug Abuse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- Ridgely, M., Morrissey, J., Paulson, R., Goldman, H., & Calloway, M. (1996). Characteristics and activities of case managers in the RWJ Foundation Program on chronic mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 47(7), 737–743.
- Saleebey, D. (1996). The strengths perspective in social work practice: Extensions and cautions. Social Work, 41(3), 296–305.
- Saleebey, D. (2002). The strengths perspective in social work practice (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
- SAS Institute. (2008). SAS/STAT Software, Version 8. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
- Siegal, H. A., Rapp, R. C., Kelliher, C. W., Fisher, J., Wagner, J. H., & Cole, P. (1995). The strengths perspective of case management: A promising inpatient substance abuse treatment enhancement. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 27(1), 67–72.
- Siegal, H., & Rapp, R. (Eds.). (1996). Case management and substance abuse treatment: Practice and experience. New York: Springe.
- Siegal, H., Fisher, J., Rapp, R., Kelliher, C., Wagner, J., O'Brien, W., et al. (1996). Enhancing substance abuse treatment with case management: Its impact on employment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13(2), 93–98. CrossRef
- Siegal, H., Li, L., & Rapp, R. (2002). Case management as a therapeutic enhancement: Impact on post-treatment criminality. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 21(4), 37–47. CrossRef
- Simpson, D. D., & Joe, G. W. (1993). Motivation as a predictor of early dropout from drug abuse treatment. Psychotherapy, 30, 357–368. CrossRef
- Simpson, D. D., Joe, G. W., & Brown, B. S. (1997). Treatment retention and follow-up outcomes in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 11(4), 294–307. CrossRef
- Sorensen, J. L., Masson, C. L., Delucchi, D., Sporer, K., Barnett, P. G., Mitsuishi, F., et al. (2005). Randomized trial of drug abuse treatment-linkage strategies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(6), 1026–1035. CrossRef
- Stout, R. L., Wirtz, P. W., Carbonari, J. P., & Del Boca, F. K. (1994). Ensuring balanced distribution of prognostic factors in treatment outcome research. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Supplement, 12, 70–75.
- Strathdee, S. A., Ricketts, E. P., Huettner, S., Cornelius, L., Bishai, D., Havens, J. R., et al. (2006). Facilitating entry into drug treatment among injection drug users referred from a needle exchange program: Results from a community-based behavioral intervention trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 83(3), 225–232. CrossRef
- Taxman, F. S. (2004). The offender and reentry: Supporting active participation in reintegration. Federal Probation, 68(2), 31–35.
- Tooze, J. A., Grunwald, G. K., & Jones, R. H. (2002). Analysis of repeated measures data with clumping at zero. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 11(4), 341–355. CrossRef
- Vaughan-Sarrazin, M. S., Hall, J. A., & Rick, G. S. (2000). Impact of case management on use of health services by rural clients in substance abuse treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30(2), 435–463.
- Viera, A. J., & Garrett, J. M. (2005). Understanding interobserver agreement: The kappa statistic. Family Medicine, 37(5), 360–363.
- Wexler, H. K., Melnick, G., Lowe, L., & Peters, J. (1999). Three-year reincarceration outcomes for Amity in-prison therapeutic community and aftercare in California. Prison Journal, 79(3), 312–336. CrossRef
- A multi-site, randomized study of strengths-based case management with substance-abusing parolees
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Journal of Experimental Criminology
Volume 7, Issue 3 , pp 225-253
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Case management
- Drug-use offenders
- Experimental design
- Field experiments
- Offender treatment
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California Los Angeles, 1640 S. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 320, Los Angeles, CA, 90025, USA
- 2. Research Division, Connecticut Department of Mental Health & Addiction Services, Hartford, CT, USA
- 3. Center for the Integration of Research & Practice, National Development & Research Institutes, Inc, New York, NY, USA
- 4. Center on Drug and Alcohol Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA