Journal of Experimental Criminology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 227–243

Collaborative behavioral management: integration and intensification of parole and outpatient addiction treatment services in the Step’n Out study


    • Center on Systems, Outcomes & Quality in Chronic Disease & Disability, Providence Veterans Affairs Medical CenterAlpert Medical School of Brown University
    • Rhode Island Research Center of CJ-DATS, Division of General Internal MedicineRhode Island Hospital
  • Anne G. Rhodes
    • CJDATS Coordinating CenterGeorge Mason University
  • Faye S. Taxman
    • CJDATS Coordinating CenterGeorge Mason University
  • for the Step’n Out Research Group of CJ-DATS

DOI: 10.1007/s11292-009-9079-3

Cite this article as:
Friedmann, P.D., Rhodes, A.G., Taxman, F.S. et al. J Exp Criminol (2009) 5: 227. doi:10.1007/s11292-009-9079-3


Integration of community parole and addiction treatment holds promise for optimizing the participation of drug-involved parolees in re-entry services, but intensification of services might yield greater rates of technical violations. Collaborative behavioral management (CBM) integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and to deliver contingent reinforcement of behaviors consistent with contracted objectives. Attendance at both parole and addiction treatment are specifically reinforced. The Step’n Out study of the Criminal Justice–Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) randomly allocated 486 drug-involved parolees to either collaborative behavioral management or traditional parole with 3-month and 9-month follow-up. Bivariate and multivariate regression models found that, in the first 3 months, the CBM group had more parole sessions, face-to-face parole sessions, days on which parole and treatment occurred on the same day, treatment utilization and individual counseling, without an increase in parole violations. We conclude that CBM integrated parole and treatment as planned, and intensified parolees’ utilization of these services, without increasing violations.


Addiction treatmentBehavioral managementCommunity reinforcement approachCommunity supervisionGraduated sanctionsParoleProbationRole inductionSubstance abuse

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© US Government 2009