Journal of Experimental Criminology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 227-243

First online:

Collaborative behavioral management: integration and intensification of parole and outpatient addiction treatment services in the Step’n Out study

  • Peter D. FriedmannAffiliated withCenter on Systems, Outcomes & Quality in Chronic Disease & Disability, Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityRhode Island Research Center of CJ-DATS, Division of General Internal Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital Email author 
  • , Anne G. RhodesAffiliated withCJDATS Coordinating Center, George Mason University
  • , Faye S. TaxmanAffiliated withCJDATS Coordinating Center, George Mason University
  • , for the Step’n Out Research Group of CJ-DATS

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Integration of community parole and addiction treatment holds promise for optimizing the participation of drug-involved parolees in re-entry services, but intensification of services might yield greater rates of technical violations. Collaborative behavioral management (CBM) integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and to deliver contingent reinforcement of behaviors consistent with contracted objectives. Attendance at both parole and addiction treatment are specifically reinforced. The Step’n Out study of the Criminal Justice–Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) randomly allocated 486 drug-involved parolees to either collaborative behavioral management or traditional parole with 3-month and 9-month follow-up. Bivariate and multivariate regression models found that, in the first 3 months, the CBM group had more parole sessions, face-to-face parole sessions, days on which parole and treatment occurred on the same day, treatment utilization and individual counseling, without an increase in parole violations. We conclude that CBM integrated parole and treatment as planned, and intensified parolees’ utilization of these services, without increasing violations.


Addiction treatment Behavioral management Community reinforcement approach Community supervision Graduated sanctions Parole Probation Role induction Substance abuse