Article

Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 217, Issue 1, pp 463-471

Heat Flux Measurements and Modeling of Malodorous Compounds above an Anaerobic Swine Lagoon

  • John H. LoughrinAffiliated withUnited States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Waste Management Research Unit Email author 
  • , Arturo I. QuintanarAffiliated withDepartment of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky University
  • , Nanh C. LovanhAffiliated withUnited States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Waste Management Research Unit
  • , Rezaul MahmoodAffiliated withMeteorology Program, Western Kentucky UniversityDepartment of Geography and Geology, Western Kentucky UniversityKentucky Climate Center, Western Kentucky University

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Abstract

The concentration of p-cresol and p-ethylphenol, two malodorants typical of swine waste, were measured at 0.5 and 1.5 m above a waste treatment lagoon during two separate campaigns encompassing late winter through early spring and late spring through early summer. Concomitant collection of air temperatures, humidities, insolation, and wind speeds, as well as water column temperatures were done so that heat fluxes could be computed using an energy budget method and Bowen ratio estimates. The empirical model that was found to correlate best with variations in malodorant concentrations and gradients above the lagoon had the terms describing evaporation from the lagoon surface and net available energy at the lagoon surface. Emissions were found to be much higher during the cool season than the warm season. This was despite much higher evaporation rates during the warm season. This could be explained by much lower lagoon concentrations of the malodorants in the warm season than in the cool season. Results of this work are being used to determine appropriate models to estimate malodorant emissions from lagoons and devise techniques for the abatement of nuisance emissions.

Keywords

p-cresol p-ethylphenol Evaporation Heat flux Lagoon Malodor