Effects of Land Use on Hydrochemistry and Contamination of Karst Groundwater from Nandong Underground River System, China Authors
First Online: 13 October 2009 Received: 16 June 2009 Accepted: 22 September 2009 DOI:
10.1007/s11270-009-0229-z Cite this article as: Jiang, Y. & Yan, J. Water Air Soil Pollut (2010) 210: 123. doi:10.1007/s11270-009-0229-z
The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in Southeast Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater in NURS plays a critical role in socio-economical development of the region. However, with the rapid increase of population in recent years, groundwater quality has degraded greatly. In this study, the analysis of 36 groundwater samples collected from springs in both rain and dry seasons shows significant spatial disparities and slight seasonal variations of major element concentrations in the groundwater. In addition, results from factor analysis indicate that NO
, Cl 3
, Na 4
+, K +, and EC in the groundwater are mainly from the sources related to human activities while Ca 2+, Mg 2+, HCO
, and pH are primarily controlled by water–rock interactions in karst system with Ca 3
2+ and HCO
somewhat from anthropogenic inputs. With the increased anthropogenic contaminations, the groundwater chemistry changes widely from Ca-HCO 3
3 or Ca (Mg)-HCO 3 type to Ca-Cl (+NO 3) or Ca (Mg)-Cl (+NO 3), and Ca-Cl (+NO 3+SO 4) or Ca (Mg)-Cl (+NO 3+SO 4) type. Concentrations of NO
, Cl 3
, Na 4
+, and K + generally show an indistinct grouping with respect to land use types, with very high concentrations observed in the groundwater from residential and agricultural areas. This suggests that those ions are mainly derived from sewage effluents and fertilizers. No specific land use control on the Mg 2+ ion distribution is observed, suggesting Mg 2+ is originated from natural dissolution of carbonate rocks. The distribution of Ca 2+ and HCO
does not show any distinct land use control either, except for the samples from residential zones, suggesting the Ca 3
2+ and HCO
mainly come from both natural dissolution of carbonate rocks and sewage effluents. 3
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