Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 104, Issue 3, pp 283-300

First online:

Anther culture for haploid and doubled haploid production

  • Maria Antonietta GermanàAffiliated withDipartimento S.EN.FI.MI.ZO, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi di Palermo Email author 

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Haploids are plants with a gametophytic chromosome number and doubled haploids are haploids that have undergone chromosome duplication. The production of haploids and doubled haploids (DHs) through gametic embryogenesis allows a single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, shortening the time required to produce homozygous plants in comparison with the conventional breeding methods that employ several generations of selfing. The production of haploids and DHs provides a particularly attractive biotechnological tool, and the development of haploidy technology and protocols to produce homozygous plants has had a significant impact on agricultural systems. Nowadays, these biotechnologies represent an integral part of the breeding programmes of many agronomically important crops. There are several available methods to obtain haploids and DHs, of which in vitro anther or isolated microspore culture are the most effective and widely used. This review article deals with the current status of knowledge on the production of haploids and DHs through pollen embryogenesis and, in particular, anther culture.


Anther culture Doubled haploids Haploids Homozygosity Pollen embryogenesis