, Volume 187, Issue 1, pp 95-122

First online:

Reversing 30 years of discussion: why causal decision theorists should one-box

  • Wolfgang SpohnAffiliated withDepartment of Philosophy, University of Konstanz Email author 

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


The paper will show how one may rationalize one-boxing in Newcomb’s problem and drinking the toxin in the Toxin puzzle within the confines of causal decision theory by ascending to so-called reflexive decision models which reflect how actions are caused by decision situations (beliefs, desires, and intentions) represented by ordinary unreflexive decision models.


Causal decision theory Evidential decision theory Newcomb’s problem Toxin puzzle Reflexive decision theory